The Elements of Statistical Learning

Data Mining, Inference, and Prediction

The Elements of Statistical Learning

During the past decade there has been an explosion in computation and information technology. With it have come vast amounts of data in a variety of fields such as medicine, biology, finance, and marketing. The challenge of understanding these data has led to the development of new tools in the field of statistics, and spawned new areas such as data mining, machine learning, and bioinformatics. Many of these tools have common underpinnings but are often expressed with different terminology. This book describes the important ideas in these areas in a common conceptual framework. While the approach is statistical, the emphasis is on concepts rather than mathematics. Many examples are given, with a liberal use of color graphics. It should be a valuable resource for statisticians and anyone interested in data mining in science or industry. The book’s coverage is broad, from supervised learning (prediction) to unsupervised learning. The many topics include neural networks, support vector machines, classification trees and boosting---the first comprehensive treatment of this topic in any book. This major new edition features many topics not covered in the original, including graphical models, random forests, ensemble methods, least angle regression & path algorithms for the lasso, non-negative matrix factorization, and spectral clustering. There is also a chapter on methods for “wide” data (p bigger than n), including multiple testing and false discovery rates. Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome Friedman are professors of statistics at Stanford University. They are prominent researchers in this area: Hastie and Tibshirani developed generalized additive models and wrote a popular book of that title. Hastie co-developed much of the statistical modeling software and environment in R/S-PLUS and invented principal curves and surfaces. Tibshirani proposed the lasso and is co-author of the very successful An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Friedman is the co-inventor of many data-mining tools including CART, MARS, projection pursuit and gradient boosting.

An Introduction to Statistical Learning

with Applications in R

An Introduction to Statistical Learning

An Introduction to Statistical Learning provides an accessible overview of the field of statistical learning, an essential toolset for making sense of the vast and complex data sets that have emerged in fields ranging from biology to finance to marketing to astrophysics in the past twenty years. This book presents some of the most important modeling and prediction techniques, along with relevant applications. Topics include linear regression, classification, resampling methods, shrinkage approaches, tree-based methods, support vector machines, clustering, and more. Color graphics and real-world examples are used to illustrate the methods presented. Since the goal of this textbook is to facilitate the use of these statistical learning techniques by practitioners in science, industry, and other fields, each chapter contains a tutorial on implementing the analyses and methods presented in R, an extremely popular open source statistical software platform. Two of the authors co-wrote The Elements of Statistical Learning (Hastie, Tibshirani and Friedman, 2nd edition 2009), a popular reference book for statistics and machine learning researchers. An Introduction to Statistical Learning covers many of the same topics, but at a level accessible to a much broader audience. This book is targeted at statisticians and non-statisticians alike who wish to use cutting-edge statistical learning techniques to analyze their data. The text assumes only a previous course in linear regression and no knowledge of matrix algebra.

The Elements of Statistical Learning

The Elements of Statistical Learning

The Elements of Statistical Learning features many topics not covered in the original, including graphical models, random forests, ensemble methods, least angle regression & path algorithms for the lasso, non-negative matrix factorisation, and spectral clustering. There is also a chapter on methods for "wide'' data (p bigger than n), including multiple testing and false discovery rates.This book describes the important ideas in a variety of fields such as medicine, biology, finance, and marketing in a common conceptual framework. While the approach is statistical, the emphasis is on concepts rather than mathematics. Many examples are given, with a liberal use of colour graphics. It is a valuable resource for statisticians and anyone interested in data mining in science or industry. The book's coverage is broad, from supervised learning (prediction) to unsupervised learning.

The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory

The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory

The aim of this book is to discuss the fundamental ideas which lie behind the statistical theory of learning and generalization. It considers learning as a general problem of function estimation based on empirical data. Omitting proofs and technical details, the author concentrates on discussing the main results of learning theory and their connections to fundamental problems in statistics. This second edition contains three new chapters devoted to further development of the learning theory and SVM techniques. Written in a readable and concise style, the book is intended for statisticians, mathematicians, physicists, and computer scientists.

The Elements of Creativity and Giftedness in Mathematics

The Elements of Creativity and Giftedness in Mathematics

The Elements of Creativity and Giftedness in Mathematics edited by Bharath Sriraman and KyeongHwa Lee covers recent advances in mathematics education pertaining to the development of creativity and giftedness. The book is international in scope in the “sense” that it includes numerous studies on mathematical creativity and giftedness conducted in the U.S.A, China, Korea, Turkey, Israel, Sweden, and Norway in addition to cross-national perspectives from Canada and Russia. The topics include problem -posing, problem-solving and mathematical creativity; the development of mathematical creativity with students, pre and in-service teachers; cross-cultural views of creativity and giftedness; the unpacking of notions and labels such as high achieving, inclusion, and potential; as well as the theoretical state of the art on the constructs of mathematical creativity and giftedness. The book also includes some contributions from the first joint meeting of the American Mathematical Society and the Korean Mathematical Society in Seoul, 2009. Topics covered in the book are essential reading for graduate students and researchers interested in researching issues and topics within the domain of mathematical creativity and mathematical giftedness. It is also accessible to pre-service and practicing teachers interested in developing creativity in their classrooms, in addition to professional development specialists, mathematics educators, gifted educators, and psychologists.

The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods, Vol. 2: Statistical Analysis

The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods, Vol. 2: Statistical Analysis

Research today demands the application of sophisticated and powerful research tools. Fulfilling this need, The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods is the complete tool box to deliver the most valid and generalizable answers to todays complex research questions. It is a one-stop source for learning and reviewing current best-practices in quantitative methods as practiced in the social, behavioral, and educational sciences. Comprising two volumes, this handbook covers a wealth of topics related to quantitative research methods. It begins with essential philosophical and ethical issues related to science and quantitative research. It then addresses core measurement topics before delving into the design of studies. Principal issues related to modern estimation and mathematical modeling are also detailed. Topics in the handbook then segway into the realm of statistical inference and modeling with chapters dedicated to classical approaches as well as modern latent variable approaches. Numerous chapters associated with longitudinal data and more specialized techniques round out this broad selection of topics. Comprehensive, authoritative, and user-friendly, this two-volume set will be an indispensable resource for serious researchers across the social, behavioral, and educational sciences.

The Elements of Statistics

With Applications to Economics and the Social Sciences

The Elements of Statistics

Designed for instructors who want to stress the understanding of basic concepts and the development of "statistical intuition," this book demonstrates that statistical reasoning is everywhere and that statistical concepts are as important to students' personal lives as they are to their future professional careers. Ramsey aims to develop statistically literacy - from the ability to read and think critically about statistics published in popular media to the ability to analyze and act upon statistics gathered in the business world. The underlying philosophy of this book is that given a reasonable level of depth in the analysis, the student can later acquire a much more extensive, and even more intensive, exposure to statistics on their own or in the context of the work environment. Some use of calculus is included. Use of the computer is integrated throughout.

Machine Learning for Email

Spam Filtering and Priority Inbox

Machine Learning for Email

If you’re an experienced programmer willing to crunch data, this concise guide will show you how to use machine learning to work with email. You’ll learn how to write algorithms that automatically sort and redirect email based on statistical patterns. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White approach the process in a practical fashion, using a case-study driven approach rather than a traditional math-heavy presentation. This book also includes a short tutorial on using the popular R language to manipulate and analyze data. You’ll get clear examples for analyzing sample data and writing machine learning programs with R. Mine email content with R functions, using a collection of sample files Analyze the data and use the results to write a Bayesian spam classifier Rank email by importance, using factors such as thread activity Use your email ranking analysis to write a priority inbox program Test your classifier and priority inbox with a separate email sample set

Handbook of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Applications

Handbook of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Applications

The Handbook of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Applications is a comprehensive professional reference book that guides business analysts, scientists, engineers and researchers (both academic and industrial) through all stages of data analysis, model building and implementation. The Handbook helps one discern the technical and business problem, understand the strengths and weaknesses of modern data mining algorithms, and employ the right statistical methods for practical application. Use this book to address massive and complex datasets with novel statistical approaches and be able to objectively evaluate analyses and solutions. It has clear, intuitive explanations of the principles and tools for solving problems using modern analytic techniques, and discusses their application to real problems, in ways accessible and beneficial to practitioners across industries - from science and engineering, to medicine, academia and commerce. This handbook brings together, in a single resource, all the information a beginner will need to understand the tools and issues in data mining to build successful data mining solutions. Written "By Practitioners for Practitioners" Non-technical explanations build understanding without jargon and equations Tutorials in numerous fields of study provide step-by-step instruction on how to use supplied tools to build models Practical advice from successful real-world implementations Includes extensive case studies, examples, MS PowerPoint slides and datasets CD-DVD with valuable fully-working 90-day software included: "Complete Data Miner - QC-Miner - Text Miner" bound with book

Elements of Causal Inference

Foundations and Learning Algorithms

Elements of Causal Inference

The mathematization of causality is a relatively recent development, and has become increasingly important in data science and machine learning. This book offers a self-contained and concise introduction to causal models and how to learn them from data. After explaining the need for causal models and discussing some of the principles underlying causal inference, the book teaches readers how to use causal models: how to compute intervention distributions, how to infer causal models from observational and interventional data, and how causal ideas could be exploited for classical machine learning problems. All of these topics are discussed first in terms of two variables and then in the more general multivariate case. The bivariate case turns out to be a particularly hard problem for causal learning because there are no conditional independences as used by classical methods for solving multivariate cases. The authors consider analyzing statistical asymmetries between cause and effect to be highly instructive, and they report on their decade of intensive research into this problem. The book is accessible to readers with a background in machine learning or statistics, and can be used in graduate courses or as a reference for researchers. The text includes code snippets that can be copied and pasted, exercises, and an appendix with a summary of the most important technical concepts.