The Extended Mind

The Body in Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rowlands, M. (2003). Externalism. Chesham, Buckinghamshire: Acumen Press. Thelen, E., and Smith, L. B. (1994). A Dynamical Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and ...

The Extended Mind

Leading scholars respond to the famous proposition by Andy Clark and David Chalmersthat cognition and mind are not located exclusively in the head.

Embodiment Enaction and Culture

The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. Simon & Schuster. ... Introduction: The cognitive life of things; Archaeology, material engagement and the extended mind. ... Taylor and Francis e-Library.

Embodiment  Enaction  and Culture

The first interdisciplinary investigation of the cultural context of enactive embodiment, offering perspectives that range from the neurophilosophical to the anthropological. Recent accounts of cognition attempt to overcome the limitations of traditional cognitive science by reconceiving cognition as enactive and the cognizer as an embodied being who is embedded in biological, psychological, and cultural contexts. Cultural forms of sense-making constitute the shared world, which in turn is the origin and place of cognition. This volume is the first interdisciplinary collection on the cultural context of embodiment, offering perspectives that range from the neurophilosophical to the anthropological. The book brings together new contributions by some of the most renowned scholars in the field and the latest results from up-and-coming researchers. The contributors explore conceptual foundations, drawing on work by Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, and Sartre, and respond to recent critiques. They consider whether there is something in the self that precedes intersubjectivity and inquire into the relation between culture and consciousness, the nature of shared meaning and social understanding, the social dimension of shame, and the nature of joint affordances. They apply the notion of radical enactive cognition to evolutionary anthropology, and examine the concept of the body in relation to culture in light of studies in such fields as phenomenology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology, and psychopathology. Through such investigations, the book breaks ground for the study of the interplay of embodiment, enaction, and culture. Contributors Mark Bickhard, Ingar Brinck, Anna Ciaunica, Hanne De Jaegher, Nicolas de Warren, Ezequiel Di Paolo, Christoph Durt, John Z. Elias, Joerg Fingerhut, Aikaterini Fotopoulou, Thomas Fuchs, Shaun Gallagher, Vittorio Gallese, Duilio Garofoli, Katrin Heimann, Peter Henningsen, Daniel D. Hutto, Laurence J. Kirmayer, Alba Montes Sánchez, Dermot Moran, Maxwell J. D. Ramstead, Matthew Ratcliffe, Vasudevi Reddy, Zuzanna Rucińska, Alessandro Salice, Glenda Satne, Heribert Sattel, Christian Tewes, Dan Zahavi

Bion Intuition and the Expansion of Psychoanalytic Theory

e End of eory: e Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete”, Wired (www.wired.com/2008/06/pb-theory/). Bion, W. R. (1992). Cogitations, New Extended Edition, ... The Extended Mind. Analysis Wiley Online Library.

Bion  Intuition and the Expansion of Psychoanalytic Theory

Bion, Intuition and the Expansion of Psychoanalytic Theory illuminates how Bion’s work on intuition has changed the landscape of contemporary psychoanalysis through his understanding of its supra-scientific and non-sub-scientific condition. Based on the work of the biannual Bion conference, this book includes contributions from the most eminent voices on Bion’s work. The global cohort of contributors in this volume examine topics such as dream work, the Infinite Unconscious, the Spectral model of the mind, the realm of the minus and observation and intuition. Each chapter explores different elements arising from Bion’s insistence on learning from experience and establishing the difference between knowing and becoming as an experiential process of the mind as a container in relation to its contents of sensations, feelings, dreams and thoughts. This book will be of key interest to analysts and analytic therapists of all schools and is an essential resource for those that follow the work of Bion.

Cognition Beyond the Brain

Memento's revenge: The extended mind, extended. In R. Menary (Ed.), The extended mind. ... The cognitive integration of e-memory. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 4(1), ... The e-memory revolution. Library Journal, 134(15), 20–23.

Cognition Beyond the Brain

This book challenges neurocentrism by advocating a systemic view of cognition based on investigating how action shapes the experience of thinking, placing interactivity at its heart. This systemic viewpoint makes three main claims. First, that many elaborate cognitive skills like language, problem solving and human-computer interaction (HCI) are based in sense-saturated coordination or interactivity. Second, interactivity produces a tightly woven scaffold of resources, some internal to the agent and others external, that elevates and transforms thinking. Third, human agents entwine brains, bodies and their surroundings as they manage multi-scalar dynamics. This new edition continues to demonstrate how a systemic perspective casts a productive light on thinking in applied domains such as crime scene analysis, the use of information technology in construction, and computer-meditated trusts and presents new studies on the cognitive ecology of the web, multi-scalar temporal and organisational cognition and the importance of interactive material engagement in digital architecture. Authors use various scales of the systemic viewpoint to illustrate how bodies and artefacts shape thinking, but in all cases the experience of materiality is meshed with activity that involves the world beyond the body. Cognition Beyond the Brain is a valuable reference for researchers, practitioners and graduate students within the fields of Computer Science, Psychology, Linguistics and Cognitive Sciences.

Flann O Brien Modernism

'Radical enactivism' goes further and suggests that the mind is not just 'extended' but 'extensive' and that 'basic ... For Joyce's library, this essay builds on research by studies such as Thomas E. Connolly's The Personal Library of ...

Flann O Brien   Modernism

Flann O'Brien & Modernism brings a much-needed refreshment to the state of scholarship on this increasingly recognised but still widely misunderstood 'second generation' modernist. Rather than construe him as a postmodernist, it correctly locates O'Brien's work as the product of a late modernist sensibility and cultural context. Similarly, while there should be no doubt of his Irishness, and his profound debts to Irish language, history and culture, this collection seeks to understand O'Brien's nationally sensitive achievement as the work of an internationalist whose preoccupations reflect global modernist trends. The distinct themes and concerns tracked in Flann O'Brien & Modernism include characterization in branching narrative forms; the ethics and paradoxes of naming; parody and homage; lies and deception; theatricality; sexuality; technology and transport; and the inevitable matter of drink and intoxication. Taken together, these specific topics construct a mosaic image of O'Brien as an exemplary modernist auteur, abreast of all the most salient philosophical and technical concerns affecting literary production in the period immediately before and after World War Two.

James Joyce s Work in Progress

'Embodied, Embedded, and Extended Cognition'. ... In The Extended Mind, edited by Richard Menary, 27–42. ... E. 1955. The Personal Library of James Joyce: A Descriptive Bibliography. Buffalo, NY: The University of Buffalo.

James Joyce s  Work in Progress

The text of Finnegans Wake is not as monolithic as it might seem. It grew out of a set of short vignettes, sections and fragments. Several of these sections, which James Joyce confidently claimed would "fuse of themselves", are still recognizable in the text of Finnegans Wake. And while they are undeniably integrated very skillfully, they also function separately. In this publication history, Dirk Van Hulle examines the interaction between the private composition process and the public life of Joyce's 'Work in Progress', from the creation of the separate sections through their publication in periodicals and as separately published sections. Van Hulle highlights the beautifully crafted editions published by fine arts presses and Joyce's encouragement of his daughter's creative talents, even as his own creative process was slowing down in the 1930s. All of these pre-book publications were "alive" in both bibliographic and textual terms, as Joyce continually changed the texts in order to prepare the book publication of Finnegans Wake. Van Hulle's book offers a fresh perspective on these texts, showing that they are not just preparatory versions of Finnegans Wake but a 'Work in Progress' in their own right.

Pre reflective Consciousness

Sartre and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind Sofia Miguens, Gerhard Preyer, Clara Bravo Morando ... New York: Philosophical Library. Thompson, E. (2007). Mind in Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Varela, F. J. (1996).

Pre reflective Consciousness

Pre-reflective Consciousness: Sartre and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind delves into the relationship between the current analytical debates on consciousness and the debates that took place within continental philosophy in the twentieth century and in particular around the time of Sartre and within his seminal works. Examining the return of the problem of subjectivity in philosophy of mind and the idea that phenomenal consciousness could not be reduced to functional or cognitive properties, this volume includes twenty-two unique contributions from leading scholars in the field. Asking questions such as: Why we should think that self-consciousness is non-reflective? Is subjectivity first-personal? Does consciousness necessitate self-awareness? Do we need pre-reflective self-consciousness? Are ego-disorders in psychosis a dysfunction of pre-reflective self-awareness? How does the Cartesian duality between body and mind fit into Sartre’s conceptions of consciousness?

Digital Scholarly Editing

In conclusion, incorporating the exogenesis (e.g. by means of the writer's library) in a digital scholarly ... 275–91; Richard Menary, 'Introduction', in The Extended Mind, ed. by Richard Menary (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2010), pp.

Digital Scholarly Editing

This volume presents the state of the art in digital scholarly editing. Drawing together the work of established and emerging researchers, it gives pause at a crucial moment in the history of technology in order to offer a sustained reflection on the practices involved in producing, editing and reading digital scholarly editions—and the theories that underpin them. The unrelenting progress of computer technology has changed the nature of textual scholarship at the most fundamental level: the way editors and scholars work, the tools they use to do such work and the research questions they attempt to answer have all been affected. Each of the essays in Digital Scholarly Editing approaches these changes with a different methodological consideration in mind. Together, they make a compelling case for re-evaluating the foundation of the discipline—one that tests its assertions against manuscripts and printed works from across literary history, and the globe. The sheer breadth of Digital Scholarly Editing, along with its successful integration of theory and practice, help redefine a rapidly-changing field, as its firm grounding and future-looking ambit ensure the work will be an indispensable starting point for further scholarship. This collection is essential reading for editors, scholars, students and readers who are invested in the future of textual scholarship and the digital humanities.

The Mind Technology Problem

New York: Basic Books. Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1991). The embodied mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Velleman, J. D. (2009). The possibility of practical reason. Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library.

The Mind Technology Problem

This edited book deepens the engagement between 21st century philosophy of mind and the emerging technologies which are transforming our environment. Many new technologies appear to have important implications for the human mind, the nature of our cognition, our sense of identity and even perhaps what we think human beings are. They prompt questions such as: Would an uploaded mind be 'me'? Does our reliance on smart phones, or wearable gadgets enhance or diminish the human mind? and: How does our deep reliance upon ambient artificial intelligence change the shape of the human mind? Readers will discover the best philosophical analysis of what current and near future 21st technology means for the metaphysics of mind. Important questions are addressed on matters relating to the extended mind and the distributed self. Expert authors explore the role that the ubiquitous smart phone might have in creating new forms of self-knowledge. They consider machine consciousness, brain enhancement and smart ambient technology, and what they can tell us about phenomenal consciousness. While ideas of artificial general intelligence, cognitive enhancements and the smart environment are widely commented on, serious analysis of their philosophical implications is only getting started. These contributions from top scholars are therefore very timely, and are of particular relevance to students and scholars of the philosophy of mind, philosophy of technology, computer science and psychology.

Distributed Cognition in Victorian Culture and Modernism

The Complete Press, <http://library.brown.edu/pdfs/1308747877743754. pdf> (Modernist Journals Project; last accessed 4 February ... Clark, A. (2013), 'Embodied, embedded, and extended cognition', in K. Frankish and W. M. Ramsey (eds), ...

Distributed Cognition in Victorian Culture and Modernism

This book brings together 11 essays by international specialists in Victorian culture and modernism and provides a general and period-specific introduction to distributed cognition and the cognitive humanities. The essays revitalise our reading of Victorian and modernist works in the fields of history of technology, science and medicine, material culture, philosophy, art and literary studies by bringing to bear recent insights in cognitive science and philosophy of mind on the ways in which cognition is distributed across brain, body and world.

The Cognitive Humanities

The extended mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Metzinger, Thomas. 2003. Phenomenal transparency and cognitive ... London: Everyman's Library. Moore, George E. 1903. The refutation of idealism. Mind 48: 433–453. Morton, Timothy. 2013.

The Cognitive Humanities

This book identifies the ‘cognitive humanities’ with new approaches to literature and culture that engage with recent theories of the embodied mind in cognitive science. If cognition should be approached less as a matter of internal representation—a Cartesian inner theatre—than as a form of embodied action, how might cultural representation be rethought? What can literature and culture reveal or challenge about embodied minds? The essays in this book ask what new directions in the humanities open up when the thinking self is understood as a participant in contexts of action, even as extended beyond the skin. Building on cognitive literary studies, but engaging much more extensively with ‘4E’ cognitive science (embodied, embedded, enactive, extended) than previously, the book uses case studies from many different historical settings (such as early modern theatre and digital technologies) and in different media (narrative, art, performance) to explore the embodied mind through culture.

The Importance of Being Earnest

on the Extended Mind theory proposed in 1998 (Clark & Chalmers). Pursuing the best intentions of this theory will lead the Library staff to a better understanding of how our students organize their environment to access electronic ...

The Importance of Being Earnest

Over one hundred presentations from the thirty-fourth Charleston Library Conference (held November 5-8, 2014) are included in this annual proceedings volume. Major themes of the meeting included patron-driven acquisitions versus librarian-driven acquisitions; marketing library resources to faculty and students to increase use; measuring and demonstrating the library's role and impact in the retention of students and faculty; the desirability of textbook purchasing by the library; changes in workflows necessitated by the move to virtual collections; the importance of self-publishing and open access publishing as a collection strategy; the hybrid publisher and the hybrid author; the library's role in the collection of data, datasets, and data curation; and data-driven decision making. While the Charleston meeting remains a core one for acquisitions, serials, and collection development librarians in dialog with publishers and vendors, the breadth of coverage of this volume reflects the fact that the Charleston Conference is now one of the major venues for leaders in the information community to shape strategy and prepare for the future.Over 1,600 delegates attended the 2014 meeting, ranging from the staff of small public library systems to CEOs of major corporations. This fully indexed, copyedited volume provides a rich source for the latest evidence-based research and lessons from practice in a range of information science fields. The contributors are leaders in the library, publishing, and vendor communities.

Linux Dictionary

From VERA http://www.tldp.org/LDP/Linux−Dictionary/html/index.html jedstate Extended mind for John E. Davis' text ... a shared ncurses library, and about 170K with a static ncurses lib, very fast loading, and straightforward design.

Linux Dictionary

This document is designed to be a resource for those Linux users wishing to seek clarification on Linux/UNIX/POSIX related terms and jargon. At approximately 24000 definitions and two thousand pages it is one of the largest Linux related dictionaries currently available. Due to the rapid rate at which new terms are being created it has been decided that this will be an active project. We welcome input into the content of this document. At this moment in time half yearly updates are being envisaged. Please note that if you wish to find a 'Computer Dictionary' then see the 'Computer Dictionary Project' at http://computerdictionary.tsf.org.za/ Searchable databases exist at locations such as: http://www.swpearl.com/eng/scripts/dictionary/ (SWP) Sun Wah-PearL Linux Training and Development Centre is a centre of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, established in 2000. Presently SWP is delivering professional grade Linux and related Open Source Software (OSS) technology training and consultant service in Hong Kong. SWP has an ambitious aim to promote the use of Linux and related Open Source Software (OSS) and Standards. The vendor independent positioning of SWP has been very well perceived by the market. Throughout the last couple of years, SWP becomes the Top Leading OSS training and service provider in Hong Kong. http://www.geona.com/dictionary?b= Geona, operated by Gold Vision Communications, is a new powerful search engine and internet directory, delivering quick and relevant results on almost any topic or subject you can imagine. The term "Geona" is an Italian and Hebrew name, meaning wisdom, exaltation, pride or majesty. We use our own database of spidered web sites and the Open Directory database, the same database which powers the core directory services for the Web's largest and most popular search engines and portals. Geona is spidering all domains listed in the non-adult part of the Open Directory and millions of additional sites of general interest to maintain a fulltext index of highly relevant web sites. http://www.linuxdig.com/documents/dictionary.php LINUXDIG.COM, "Yours News and Resource Site", LinuxDig.com was started in May 2001 as a hobby site with the original intention of getting the RFC's online and becoming an Open Source software link/download site. But since that time the site has evolved to become a RFC distribution site, linux news site and a locally written technology news site (with bad grammer :)) with focus on Linux while also containing articles about anything and everything we find interesting in the computer world. LinuxDig.Com contains about 20,000 documents and this number is growing everyday! http://linux.about.com/library/glossary/blglossary.htm Each month more than 20 million people visit About.com. Whether it be home repair and decorating ideas, recipes, movie trailers, or car buying tips, our Guides offer practical advice and solutions for every day life. Wherever you land on the new About.com, you'll find other content that is relevant to your interests. If you're looking for "How To" advice on planning to re-finish your deck, we'll also show you the tools you need to get the job done. If you've been to About before, we'll show you the latest updates, so you don't see the same thing twice. No matter where you are on About.com, or how you got here, you'll always find content that is relevant to your needs. Should you wish to possess your own localised searcheable version please make use of the available "dict", http://www.dict.org/ version at the Linux Documentation Project home page, http://www.tldp.org/ The author has decided to leave it up to readers to determine how to install and run it on their specific systems. An alternative form of the dictionary is available at: http://elibrary.fultus.com/covers/technical/linux/guides/Linux-Dictionary/cover.html Fultus Corporation helps writers and companies to publish, promote, market, and sell books and eBooks. Fultus combines traditional self-publishing practices with modern technology to produce paperback and hardcover print-on-demand (POD) books and electronic books (eBooks). Fultus publishes works (fiction, non-fiction, science fiction, mystery, ...) by both published and unpublished authors. We enable you to self-publish easily and cost-effectively, creating your book as a print-ready paperback or hardcover POD book or as an electronic book (eBook) in multiple eBook's formats. You retain all rights to your work. We provide distribution to bookstores worldwide. And all at a fraction of the cost of traditional publishing. We also offer corporate publishing solutions that enable businesses to produce and deliver manuals and documentation more efficiently and economically. Our use of electronic delivery and print-on-demand technologies reduces printed inventory and saves time. Please inform the author as to whether you would like to create a database or an alternative form of the dictionary so that he can include you in this list. Also note that the author considers breaches of copyright to be extremely serious. He will pursue all claims to the fullest extent of the law.

Distributed Cognition in Medieval and Renaissance Culture

Menary, R. (2010a), 'Cognitive integration and the extended mind', in R. Menary (ed.) ... Mendelsohn, J. A. (2011), 'The world on a page: Making a general observation in the eighteenth century', in L. Daston and E. Lunbeck (eds), ...

Distributed Cognition in Medieval and Renaissance Culture

This collection brings together 14 essays by international specialists in Medieval and Renaissance culture and provides a general and a period-specific introduction to distributed cognition and the cognitive humanities. The essays bring recent insights in cognitive science and philosophy of mind to bear on how cognition is seen as distributed across brain, body and world. The volume includes essays on law, history, drama, literature, art, music, philosophy, science and medicine, covering topics such as the mind, life and soul; the body and environment; the emotions; language and linguistic theories; theory of mind and interaction theory; the self and subjectivity; social, material and conceptual environments; the memory arts, orality and literacy; and literature and the arts.

How We Became Human

In E. Trinkaus, ed: The Emergence ofModern Humans. ... Princeton, NJ: Princeton Sc. Library. Borges, J. L. (1941a). “The Library of Babel. ... “La mente extendida: entrevista a Andy Clark” [The Extended Mind: Interview with Andy Clark].

How We Became Human

How We Became Human: A Challenge to Psychoanalysis tackles the question of what distinguishes human beings from other animals. By interweaving psychoanalysis, biology, physics, anthropology, and philosophy, Julio Moreno advances a novel thesis: human beings are faulty animals in their understanding of the world around them. From this perspective, Moreno seeks to reformulate many of the classic psychoanalytic, psychological, and anthropological postulates on childhood, links, and psychic change.

Cities in the 21st Century

L'Università di Bologna nella storia della cultura e della civiltà. Zanichelli, Bologna 1948. ... Clark, A. (2010), Memento«s Revenge: The Extended Mind, Extended, in Menary, R. (ed.), The Extended Mind ... The British Library, London.

Cities in the 21st Century

Cities in the 21st Century provides an overview of contemporary urban development. Written by more than thirty major academic specialists from different countries, it provides information on and analysis of the global network of cities, changes in urban form, environmental problems, the role of technologies and knowledge, socioeconomic developments, and finally, the challenge of urban governance. In the mid-20th century, architect and planner Josep Lluís Sert wondered if cities could survive; in the early 21st century, we see that cities have not only survived but have grown as never before. Cities today are engines of production and trade, forges of scientific and technological innovation, and crucibles of social change. Urbanization is a major driver of change in contemporary societies; it is a process that involves acute social inequalities and serious environmental problems, but also offers opportunities to move towards a future of greater prosperity, environmental sustainability, and social justice. With case studies on thirty cities in five continents and a selection of infographics illustrating these dynamic cities, this edited volume is an essential resource for planners and students of urbanization and urban change.

Situated Cognition and Its Critics Recent Developments

Mind Lang. 31, 37–66. doi: 10.1111/mila.12094 Clark, A., and Chalmers, D. (1998). The extended mind. ... Cambridge University Press), 55–77. doi: 10.1017/ cbo9780511816826.004 Clarke, E., DeNora, T., and Vuoskoski, J. (2015).

Situated Cognition and Its Critics  Recent Developments


Memory

Memory Distortions: How Minds, Brains, and Societies Reconstruct the Past. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 129–49. Squire, L. R., and Kandel, E. (1999). Memory: From Mind to Molecules. New York: Scientific American Library.

Memory

Sven Bernecker presents a new causal theory of memory, examining a number of metaphysical and epistemological issues crucial to the understanding of propositional or factual memory. This book provides sophisticated and comprehensive coverage of a much neglected area of philosophy, and will also appeal to cognitive scientists and psychologists.

Memory and Technology

Exograms and interdisciplinarity: History, the extended mind, and the civilizing process. ... Retrieved from https://www.wired.com/story/search-algorithms-kept-me-from-my-sister-for-14-years Tan, D., Berry, E., Czerwinski, M., Bell, G., ...

Memory and Technology

How is technology changing the way people remember? This book explores the interplay of memory stored in the brain (internal memory) and outside of the brain (external memory), providing a thorough interdisciplinary review of the current literature, including relevant theoretical frameworks from across a variety of disciplines in the sciences, arts, and humanities. It also presents the findings of a rich and novel empirical data set, based on a comprehensive survey on the shifting interplay of internal and external memory in the 21st century. Results reveal a growing symbiosis between the two forms of memory in our everyday lives. The book presents a new theoretical framework for understanding the interplay of internal and external memory, and their complementary strengths. It concludes with a guide to important dimensions, questions, and methods for future research. Memory and Technology will be of interest to researchers, professors, and students across the disciplines of psychology, philosophy, library and information science, human factors, media and cultural studies, anthropology and archaeology, photography, and cognitive rehabilitation, as well as anyone interested in how technology is affecting human memory. _____ "This is a novel book, with interesting and valuable data on an important, meaningful topic, as well as a gathering of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary ideas...The research is accurately represented and inclusive. As a teaching tool, I can envision graduate seminars in different disciplines drawing on the material as the basis for teaching and discussions." Dr. Linda A. Henkel, Fairfield University "This book documents the achievements of a vibrant scientific project – you feel the enthusiasm of the authors for their research. The organization of the manuscript introduces the reader into a comparatively new field the same way as pioneering authors have approached it." Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schönpflug, Freie Universität Berlin

Still Samuel Beckett s Quietism

... 15 (2005), 32539 Harvey, Lawrence E., Samuel Beckett: Poet and Critic (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ... 48394 , Writers Libraries and the Extended Mind (presented at the Writers and their Libraries, Senate House, ...

Still  Samuel Beckett s Quietism

In the 1930s, a young Samuel Beckett confessed to a friend that he had been living his life according to an ‘abject self-referring quietism’. Andy Wimbush argues that ‘quietism’—a philosophical and religious attitude of renunciation and will-lessness—is a key to understanding Beckett’s artistic vision and the development of his career as a fiction writer from his early novels Dream of Fair to Middling Women and Murphy to late short prose texts such as Stirrings Still and Company. Using Beckett’s published and archival material, Still: Samuel Beckett’s Quietism shows how Beckett distilled an understanding of quietism from the work of Arthur Schopenhauer, E.M. Cioran, Thomas à Kempis, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and André Gide, before turning it into an aesthetic that would liberate him from the powerful literary traditions of nineteenth-century realism and early twentieth-century high modernism. Quietism, argues Andy Wimbush, was for Beckett a lifelong preoccupation that shaped his perspectives on art, relationships, ethics, and even notions of salvation. But most of all it showed Beckett a way to renounce authorial power and write from a position of impotence, ignorance, and incoherence so as to produce a new kind of fiction that had, in Molloy’s words, the ‘tranquility of decomposition’.