The Great Powers versus the Hegemon

This is a study of great power relations – China, India, and Russia – among themselves and with the hegemon – United States.

The Great Powers versus the Hegemon

This is a study of great power relations – China, India, and Russia – among themselves and with the hegemon – United States. Ahrari argues that the next decade may witness the emergence of a bipolar order where China's dominance in economics is certain; however, China will not seriously challenge the military dominance of the U.S.

The Challenge of Hegemony

Examines the influence of the international environment on the domestic politics of great powers and the resulting effect on foreign policy

The Challenge of Hegemony

Examines the influence of the international environment on the domestic politics of great powers and the resulting effect on foreign policy

Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons

This book adds a new dimension to the discussion of the relationship between the great powers and the weaker states that align with them or not.

Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons

This book adds a new dimension to the discussion of the relationship between the great powers and the weaker states that align with them or not. Previous studies have focused on the role of the larger (or super) power and how it manages its relationships with other states, or on how great or major powers challenge or balance the hegemonic state. Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons seeks to explain why weaker states follow more powerful global or regional states or tacitly or openly resist their goals, and how they navigate their relationships with the hegemon.

Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons

This book adds a new dimension to the discussion of the relationship between the great powers and the weaker states that align with them—or not.

Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons

This book adds a new dimension to the discussion of the relationship between the great powers and the weaker states that align with them—or not. Previous studies have focused on the role of the larger (or super) power and how it manages its relationships with other states, or on how great or major powers challenge or balance the hegemonic state. Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons seeks to explain why weaker states follow more powerful global or regional states or tacitly or openly resist their goals, and how they navigate their relationships with the hegemon. The authors explore the interests, motivations, objectives, and strategies of these 'followers'—including whether they can and do challenge the policies and strategies or the core position of the hegemon. Through the analysis of both historical and contemporary cases that feature global and regional hegemons in Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and South Asia, and that address a range of interest areas—from political, to economic and military—the book reveals the domestic and international factors that account for the motivations and actions of weaker states.

What Is a Great Power a Concept and Its Meaning for Understanding International Relations

The purpose of this essay is to point out that the term of great power states and politics has changed in recent decades from security policy aspects of the Cold War to a more broaden definition including societal, economic and cultural ...

What Is a Great Power  a Concept and Its Meaning for Understanding International Relations

Essay from the year 2011 in the subject Politics - International Politics - General and Theories, grade: 2.3, University of Bath, language: English, abstract: 'A hegemon is a state that is so powerful that it dominates all the other states in the system'. Under this assumption, who can be considered to be a great power? A world leader? Can there be more than just one? And if yes, what makes them so powerful? The purpose of this essay is to point out that the term of great power states and politics has changed in recent decades from security policy aspects of the Cold War to a more broaden definition including societal, economic and cultural characteristics. Taking these indicators into consideration, the international state system has turned away from a bipolar constellation between the two superpowers USA and Soviet Union to a multipolar world with numerous big players and growing regionalisation. In this world order, the BRIC states contemplate the field of great powers next to the US and Russia. The first section will outline a comprehensive definition of what a great power is and which characteristics distinguish it from less powerful states. The second part gives an overview of how great power politics has changed in recent decades from a bipolar world system with two super powers towards a far more diversified multipolar world with various great powers and no remaining hegemon. This approach will be tested within the third part of this essay through brief inspections of the cases of the US, India and the EU.

In the Hegemon s Shadow

In the Hegemon's Shadow fills this gap. Evan Braden Montgomery draws on different strands of realist theory to develop a novel framework that explains why leading states have accommodated some rising regional powers but opposed others.

In the Hegemon s Shadow

The relationship between established powers and emerging powers is one of the most important topics in world politics. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how the leading state in the international system responds to rising powers in peripheral regions—actors that are not yet and might never become great powers but that are still increasing their strength, extending their influence, and trying to reorder their corner of the world. In the Hegemon's Shadow fills this gap. Evan Braden Montgomery draws on different strands of realist theory to develop a novel framework that explains why leading states have accommodated some rising regional powers but opposed others. Montgomery examines the interaction between two factors: the type of local order that a leading state prefers and the type of local power shift that appears to be taking place. The first captures a leading state's main interest in a peripheral region and serves as the baseline for its evaluation of any changes in the status quo. Would the leading state like to see a balance of power rather than a preponderance of power, does it favor primacy over parity instead, or is it impartial between these alternatives? The second indicates how a local power shift is likely to unfold. In particular, which regional order is an emerging power trying to create and does a leading state expect it to succeed? Montgomery tests his arguments by analyzing Great Britain’s efforts to manage the rise of Egypt, the Confederacy, and Japan during the nineteenth century and the United States’ efforts to manage the emergence of India and Iraq during the twentieth century.

South Asia and the Great Powers

This book asks whether the region's great powers can overcome opposing interests and commit to political restraint. The concept of regional security is based on great power support for regional order.

South Asia and the Great Powers

Where the implications of war and peace are open to question, the possibility of change depends more on politics than economics. This book asks whether the region's great powers can overcome opposing interests and commit to political restraint. The concept of regional security is based on great power support for regional order. However, there are many pitfalls to consider: notably, the politics of contested nationalisms; the Asia-Pacific rivalry of China and the US; and India's inclinations to function - or be seen - as a benevolent hegemon for the region. Yet there are signs of renewed determination to move the region in new directions. While China's Silk Road projects are long-term regional investments that hinge on regional stability, the US is attempting to fashion new partnerships and India strives to reconcile regional differences to promote a peaceful environment.This book, as it sets out the emerging agendas of the great powers and local powers, makes a significant contribution to a better understanding of the international relations and diplomatic politics of South Asia.

Great Powers and the Quest for Hegemony

This was particularly true of the larger ones, such as those summarized as Austria, Poland, Russia and Spain. ... prevent any single hegemon within Christian Europe—in short that the balance of power was normative; Great powers and the ...

Great Powers and the Quest for Hegemony

This timely book provides a general overview of Great Power politics and world order from 1500 to the present. Jeremy Black provides several historical case-studies, each of which throws light on both the power in question and the international system of the period, and how it had developed from the preceding period. The point of departure for this book is Paul Kennedy’s 1988 masterpiece, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. That iconic book, with its enviable mastery of the sources and its skilful integration of political, military and economic history, was a great success when it appeared and has justifiably remained important since. Written during the Cold War, however, Kennedy’s study was very much of its time in its consideration of the great powers in ‘Western’ terms, and its emphasis on economics. This book brings together strategic studies, international relations, military history and geopolitics to answer some of the contemporary questions left open by Professor Kennedy's great work, and also looks to the future of great power relations and of US hegemony. Great Powers and the Quest for Hegemony will be of great interest to students of international relations, strategic studies and international history.

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics Updated Edition

Not surprisingly, the United States, which is the only regional hegemon in modern history, has never seriously considered conquering either Europe or Northeast Asia. A great power could still conquer a neighboring region that it could ...

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics  Updated Edition

"A superb book.…Mearsheimer has made a significant contribution to our understanding of the behavior of great powers."—Barry R. Posen, The National Interest The updated edition of this classic treatise on the behavior of great powers takes a penetrating look at the question likely to dominate international relations in the twenty-first century: Can China rise peacefully? In clear, eloquent prose, John Mearsheimer explains why the answer is no: a rising China will seek to dominate Asia, while the United States, determined to remain the world's sole regional hegemon, will go to great lengths to prevent that from happening. The tragedy of great power politics is inescapable.

The Challenge of Hegemony

By managing its decline successfully , the hegemon will remain a leader among the great powers ; it will prolong its ability to influence global politics and to protect its commercial and security interests .

The Challenge of Hegemony

The Challenge of Hegemony explains how international forces subtly influence foreign, economic, and security policies of declining world powers. Using detail-rich case studies, this sweeping study integrates domestic and systemic policy to explain these countries' grand strategies. The book concludes with a discussion of the implications for the future of American foreign policy. "His conceptually rigorous and tightly reasoned study . . . reminds us that power is never value neutral but organizes commercial systems in liberal or imperial terms." ---Perspectives on Politics "Lobell's book is tightly written, nicely argued and thoroughly researched to a fault. He seems to delight in historical detail. The complexity of his approach is refreshing." ---International Affairs "The Challenge of Hegemony is a pleasure to read. It is both theoretically sophisticated and empirically rich." ---International Studies Review "The Challenge of Hegemony offers a compelling reinterpretation of key historical cases and provides wise guidance as to how the United States should wield its power today." --Charles A. Kupchan, Council on Foreign Relations "Lobell demonstrates clearly how the international environment confronting great powers interacts with their domestic political coalitions to produce different grand strategies. Through a masterful sweep of history, Lobell shows us the alternative trajectories before the United States today." --David A. Lake, University of California, San Diego

Geopolitics and the Great Powers in the 21st Century

Rather than acting as a counterweight to a would-be European hegemon threatening the integrity of the great power system, the United States acted as a quasi-hegemon in Western Europe and the peer competitor to a Soviet Union that itself ...

Geopolitics and the Great Powers in the 21st Century

This book argues that in the twenty-first century Eastern Eurasia will replace Europe as the theatre of decision in international affairs, and that this new geographic and cultural context will have a strong influence on the future of world affairs. For half a millennium, the great powers have practised what might be called ‘world politics’, yet during that time Europe, and small portions of the Near East and North Africa strategically vital to Europe, were the ‘centres of gravity’ in international politics. This book argues that the ‘unipolar moment’ of the post-Cold War era will not be replaced by a US-China ‘Cold War’, but rather by a long period of multipolarity in the twenty-first century. Examining the policy goals and possible military-political strategies of several powers, this study explains how Washington may play a key role in eastern Eurasian affairs if it can learn to operate in a very different political context. Dale Walton also considers the rapid pace of technological change and how it will impact on great power politics. Considering India, China, the US, Russia, Japan, and other countries as part of a multipolar system, he addresses the central questions that will drive US policy in the coming decades. Geopolitics and the Great Powers in the 21st Century will be of interest to students of international security, military history, geopolitics, and international relations.

Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons

(arms buildup) or externally (form alliances with other states).48 In building on Waltz's balance-of-power theory, Stephen Walt ... in considering the United States as the hegemon in the system today, states should balance against it.

Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons

This book adds a new dimension to the discussion of the relationship between the great powers and the weaker states that align with them—or not. Previous studies have focused on the role of the larger (or super) power and how it manages its relationships with other states, or on how great or major powers challenge or balance the hegemonic state. Beyond Great Powers and Hegemons seeks to explain why weaker states follow more powerful global or regional states or tacitly or openly resist their goals, and how they navigate their relationships with the hegemon. The authors explore the interests, motivations, objectives, and strategies of these 'followers'—including whether they can and do challenge the policies and strategies or the core position of the hegemon. Through the analysis of both historical and contemporary cases that feature global and regional hegemons in Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and South Asia, and that address a range of interest areas—from political, to economic and military—the book reveals the domestic and international factors that account for the motivations and actions of weaker states.

Hegemony in International Society

But what does a singular hegemony entail? Does this mean that the hegemon is, in effect, the only great power in the system? Or does it mean only that it is primus inter pares amongst a group of such great powers, enjoying no more than ...

Hegemony in International Society

A major re-thinking of the concept of hegemony in international relations. On the basis of historical examples, Ian Clark presents an innovative scheme for rethinking hegemony, and applies it to the US role in international organizations, in East Asia, and in the policy on climate change.

The Peace of Illusions

hegemon , and there is not likely to be one anytime soon . " 29 The reason is geography ... Because global hegemony is out of reach , the best a great power can hope for , Mearsheimer contends , is to become a hegemon in its own region.

The Peace of Illusions

In a provocative book about American hegemony, Christopher Layne outlines his belief that U.S. foreign policy has been consistent in its aims for more than sixty years and that the current Bush administration clings to mid-twentieth-century tactics--to no good effect. What should the nation's grand strategy look like for the next several decades? The end of the cold war profoundly and permanently altered the international landscape, yet we have seen no parallel change in the aims and shape of U.S. foreign policy. The Peace of Illusions intervenes in the ongoing debate about American grand strategy and the costs and benefits of American empire. Layne urges the desirability of a strategy he calls offshore balancing: rather than wield power to dominate other states, the U.S. government should engage in diplomacy to balance large states against one another. The United States should intervene, Layne asserts, only when another state threatens, regionally or locally, to destroy the established balance. Drawing on extensive archival research, Layne traces the form and aims of U.S. foreign policy since 1940, examining alternatives foregone and identifying the strategic aims of different administrations. His offshore-balancing notion, if put into practice with the goal of extending the American Century, would be a sea change in current strategy. Layne has much to say about present-day governmental decision making, which he examines from the perspectives of both international relations theory and American diplomatic history.

Analysing China s Soft Power Strategy and Comparative Indian Initiatives

practices and institutions are concerned.97 1 Ahrari, The Great Powers versus Hegemon, 59. 2 Zhao Ziyang, the third Premier of the PRC (1980–87) was a firm believer in Western parliamentary democracy and held that it could help China in ...

Analysing China s Soft Power Strategy and Comparative Indian Initiatives

A comprehensive analysis of China’s efforts to build and utilize soft power as a distinctive part of its foreign policy This volume examines the evolution and application of China’s soft power with particular focus on various strategic initiatives such as cultural and public diplomacy, Confucius institutes, development assistance and infrastructure building, media collaborations and healthcare diplomacy. This is to emphasize cooperation and partnerships while advancing the theory of harmonious development through these initiatives across the world. Employing an alternative perspective, it analyses the strategic benefits and limitations of China’s soft power policies, and compares them with similar policies by India for identifying the differences and applications.

The Declining Hegemon

Security hegemons are therefore necessarily great powers , but the converse is not true . In practice , the distinction between the two is one of degree ; as Waltz claims , The smaller the number of great powers , and the wider the ...

The Declining Hegemon

Lepgold's timely book examines the substance of and rationale for the American defense commitment to Europe between 1960 and 1990, a period marked by change in the U.S. world position. America's military, technological, and economic preeminence are gone and Lepgold explores how and why political leaders have adapted to this change. His study is the analysis of a "hegemonic" state's foreign policy adaption. As he examines provocative policy questions, one question acts as the leitmotif for his study--should foreign policy "commitments" and "resources" grow and decline in tandem? A final chapter discusses these events in light of recent changes in Europe.

Stable Peace Among Nations

The emphasis in a concert is on multilateral consultation, decision making, and action by the great powers with ... In contrast to this approach, which emphasizes cooperation among several powers, the hegemony proposition draws on the ...

Stable Peace Among Nations

This book builds on the original conceptualization of stable peace by Kenneth Boulding and adds contemporary theoretical and empirical understandings of its nature, causes, conditions, dimensions, and prospects for consolidation and expansion. In original research, fifteen international scholars assess the policy relevance of stable peace for the Middle East peace process and for the future of Europe.

Legitimacy and Power Politics

to the notion of several leaders exist; studies of great power diplomacy during the Concert of Europe, for example, strongly imply the notion of hegemony despite the presence of several great powers rather than a single hegemon.

Legitimacy and Power Politics

This book examines the causes and consequences of a major transformation in both domestic and international politics: the shift from dynastically legitimated monarchical sovereignty to popularly legitimated national sovereignty. It analyzes the impact of Enlightenment discourse on politics in eighteenth-century Europe and the United States, showing how that discourse facilitated new authority struggles in Old Regime Europe, shaped the American and French Revolutions, and influenced the relationships between the revolutionary regimes and the international system. The interaction between traditional and democratic ideas of legitimacy transformed the international system by the early nineteenth century, when people began to take for granted the desirability of equality, individual rights, and restraint of power. Using an interpretive, historically sensitive approach to international relations, the author considers the complex interplay between elite discourses about political legitimacy and strategic power struggles within and among states. She shows how culture, power, and interests interacted to produce a crucial yet poorly understood case of international change. The book not only shows the limits of liberal and realist theories of international relations, but also demonstrates how aspects of these theories can be integrated with insights derived from a constructivist perspective that takes culture and legitimacy seriously. The author finds that cultural contests over the terms of political legitimacy constitute one of the central mechanisms by which the character of sovereignty is transformed in the international system--a conclusion as true today as it was in the eighteenth century.

War in a Changing World

The imbalance in the overall distribution of capabilities among the great powers need not be so marked as to make the ... With regard to regional war and peace hegemony means the ability of one great power to be the principal arbiter of ...

War in a Changing World

Essays tracing the changing nature of war in relation to global and regional changes

Leadership and the Rise of Great Powers

Imperial overstretch occurred when the global obligations as defined by policy makers far exceeded the hegemon's ... at odds with the accepted morality of the age undermines the standing, influence and even the hegemony of great powers.

Leadership and the Rise of Great Powers

A leading foreign policy thinker uses Chinese political theory to explain why some powers rise as others decline and what this means for the international order While work in international relations has closely examined the decline of great powers, not much attention has been paid to the question of their rise. The upward trajectory of China is a particularly puzzling case. How has it grown increasingly important in the world arena while lagging behind the United States and its allies across certain sectors? Borrowing ideas of political determinism from ancient Chinese philosophers, Leadership and the Rise of Great Powers explains China’s expanding influence by presenting a moral-realist theory that attributes the rise and fall of nations to political leadership. Yan Xuetong shows that the stronger a rising state’s political leadership, the more likely it is to displace a prevailing state in the international system. Yan defines political leadership through the lens of morality, specifically the ability of a government to fulfill its domestic responsibility and maintain international strategic credibility. Examining leadership at the personal, national, and international levels, Yan shows how rising states like China transform the international order by reshaping power distribution and norms. Yan also considers the reasons for America’s diminishing international stature even as its economy, education system, military, political institutions, and technology hold steady. The polarization of China and the United States will not result in another Cold War scenario, but their mutual distrust will ultimately drive the world center from Europe to East Asia. Using the lens of classical Chinese political theory, Leadership and the Rise of Great Powers offers a provocative, alternative perspective on the changing dominance of nations on the global stage.