The Growth of Biological Thought

An incisive study of the development of the biological sciences chronicles the origins, maturation, and modern views of the classification of life forms, the evolution of species, and the inheritance and variation of characteristics

The Growth of Biological Thought

An incisive study of the development of the biological sciences chronicles the origins, maturation, and modern views of the classification of life forms, the evolution of species, and the inheritance and variation of characteristics

Perilous Planet Earth

E. Mayr , The Growth of Biological Thought , Harvard University Press , Cambridge , Mass . , 1982 , 128-129 , 201-202 , 319 , 326 . 23. R.W. Burkhardt , The Spirit of System , 112 , 128-138 , 186–187 , 191-195 ; P. Corsi , The Age of ...

Perilous Planet Earth

A readable account of the history of natural disasters throughout history.

Ancestors and Relatives

See also Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought,400–01; Mayr, “Darwin's Five Theories of Evolution,” 759. See, for example, Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari, Race and Human Evolution (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 116,319; ...

Ancestors and Relatives

Noted social scientist Eviatar Zerubavel casts a critical eye on how we trace our past-individually and collectively arguing that rather than simply find out who our ancestors are from genetics or history, we actually create the stories that make them our ancestors.

The Evolution Controversy in America

Mayr, Growth of Biological Thought, 566-68. 28. Ibid., 553-59; Bowler, Evolution, 290-97; Mark B. Adams, “Sergei Chetverikov, the Kol'tsov Institute, and the Evolutionary Synthesis,” in Evolutionary Synthesis, ed.

The Evolution Controversy in America

For well over a century, the United States has witnessed a prolonged debate over organic evolution and teaching of the theory in the nation's public schools. The controversy that began with the publication of Darwin's Origin of the Species had by the 1920s expanded to include theologians, politicians, and educators. The Scopes trial of 1925 provided the growing antievolution movement with significant publicity and led to a decline in the teaching of evolution in public schools. George E. Webb details how efforts to improve science education in the wake of Sputnik resurrected antievolution sentiment and led to the emergence of "creation science" as the most recent expression of that sentiment. Creationists continue to demand "balanced treatment" of theories of creation and evolution in public schools, even though their efforts have been declared unconstitutional in a series of federal court cases. Their battles have been much more successful at the grassroots level, garnering support from local politicians and educators. Webb attributes the success of creationists primarily to the lack of scientific literacy among the American public. Although a number of published studies have dealt with specific aspects of the debate, The Evolution Controversy in America represents the first complete historical survey of the topic. In it Webb provides an analysis of one of the most intriguing debates in the history of American thought.

The Evolution Controversy in America

Mayr , Growth of Biological Thought . 566-68 . 28. Ibid . , 553-59 ; Bowler , Evolution , 290-97 ; Mark B. Adams , " Sergei Chetverikov , the Koltsov Institute , and the Evolutionary Synthesis , " in Evolutionary Synthesis , ed .

The Evolution Controversy in America

" On April 30, 1975, Saigon and the government of South Vietnam fell to the communist regime of North Vietnam, ending -- for American military forces -- exactly twenty-five year of courageous but unavailing struggle. This is not the story of how America became embroiled in a conflict in a small country half-way around the globe, nor of why our armed forces remained there so long after the futility of our efforts became obvious to many. It is the story of what went wrong there militarily, and why. The author is a professional soldier who experienced the Vietnam war in the field and in the highest command echelons. General Palmer's insights into the key events and decisions that shaped American's military role in Vietnam are uncommonly perceptive. America's most serious error, he believes, was committing its armed forces to a war in which neither political nor military goals were ever fully articulated by our civilian leaders. Our armed forces, lacking clear objectives, failed to develop an appropriate strategy, instead relinquishing the offensive to Hanoi. Yet an achievable strategy could have been devised, Palmer believes. Moreover, our South Vietnamese allies could have been bolstered by appropriate aid but were instead overwhelmed by the massive American military presence. Compounding these errors were the flawed civilian and military chains of command. The result was defeat for America and disaster for South Vietnam. General Palmer presents here an insider's history of the war and an astute critique of America's military strengths and successes as well as its weaknesses and failures.

Biology

6Magner, A History of the Life Sciences 7Mehmet Bayrakdar, ”Al-Jahiz And the Rise of Biological Evolutionism”, ... Genesis, chapter 7; Coleman, Biology in the Nineteenth Century, chapters 2 11Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, ...

Biology


Evolution and Bah Belief

Quoted in Ernst Mayr , The Growth of Biological Thought . Diversity , Evolution , and Inheritance ( Cambridge : Harvard University Press , 1982 ) p 141 . 5. A U.S. News poll conducted in 1994 indicated that 93 % of Americans “ believe ...

Evolution and Bah      Belief

Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions, Volume 12This is the first and only serious, academic treatment of the subject of evolution in the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. The authors provide an exhaustive discussion of the historical context of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's remarks on and objections to the Darwinian theories of his time, presenting modern alternatives to contemporary interpretations of his remarksKeven Brown's essay investigates the religious controversy that has surrounded the subject of evolution, both within Christianity and within Islam, during 'Abdu'l-Bahá's time. He provides a valuable summary of the views of those the Master called "the philosophers of the East."Then, from the perspective of modern science, Eberhard von Kitzing discusses the impact of evolution on the study of biology and suggests that 'Abdu'l-Bahá's teachings have been widely misunderstood.This book will expand and deepen discussion on evolution in the Bahá'í community.

The Sustainable Economics of Elinor Ostrom

(Hess 2010: 3) Ernst Mayr In an article entitled 'The Ten Most Important Books' Elinor Ostrom (2004) included The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance (Mayr 1982). This might appear to be an unusual choice ...

The Sustainable Economics of Elinor Ostrom

Elinor Ostrom’s Nobel Prize-winning work on common pool property rights has implications for some of the most pressing sustainability issues of the twenty-first century — from tackling climate change to maintaining cyberspace. In this book, Derek Wall critically examines Ostrom’s work, while also exploring the following questions: is it possible to combine insights rooted in methodological individualism with a theory that stresses collectivist solutions? Is Ostrom’s emphasis on largely local solutions to climate change relevant to a crisis propelled by global factors? This volume situates her ideas in terms of the constitutional analysis of her partner Vincent Ostrom and wider institutional economics. It outlines her key concerns, including a radical research methodology, commitment to indigenous people and the concept of social-ecological systems. Ostrom is recognised for producing a body of work which demonstrates how people can construct rules that allow them to exploit the environment in an ecologically sustainable way, without the need for governmental regulation, and this book argues that in a world where ecological realities increasingly threaten material prosperity, such scholarship provides a way of thinking about how humanity can create truly sustainable development. Given the inter-disciplinary nature of Ostrom’s work, this book will be relevant to those working in the areas of environmental economics, political economy, political science and ecology.

Late Soviet Culture

Mayr , The Growth of Biological Thought , 53 . 30. H. A. Simon , “ The Architecture ... Max Delbrück , “ A Physicist Looks at Biology , ” Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 38 ( 1949 ) : 173. My emphasis . 39.

Late Soviet Culture

As the Soviet Union dissolved, so did the visions of past and future that informed Soviet culture. With Dystopia left behind and Utopia forsaken, where do the writers, artists, and critics who once inhabited them stand? In an "advancing present," answers editor Thomas Lahusen. Just what that present might be--in literature and film, criticism and theory, philosophy and psychoanalysis, and in the politics that somehow speaks to all of these—is the subject of this collection of essays. Leading scholars from the former Soviet Union and the West gather here to consider the fate of the people and institutions that constituted Soviet culture. Whether the speculative glance goes back (to czarist Russia or Soviet Freudianism, to the history of aesthetics or the sociology of cinema in the 1930s) or forward (to the "market Stalinism" one writer predicts or the "open text of history" another advocates), a sense of immediacy, or history-in-the-making animates this volume. Will social and cultural institutions now develop organically, the authors ask, or is the society faced with the prospect of even more radical reforms? Does the present rupture mark the real moment of Russia's encounter with modernity? The options explored by literary historians, film scholars, novelists, and political scientists make this book a heady tour of cultural possibilities. An expanded version of a special issue of South Atlantic Quarterly (Spring 1991), with seven new essays, Late Soviet Culture will stimulate scholar and general reader alike. Contributors. Katerina Clark, Paul Debreczeny, Evgeny Dobrenko, Mikhail Epstein, Renata Galtseva, Helena Goscilo, Michael Holquist, Boris Kagarlitsky, Mikhail Kuraev, Thomas Lahusen, Valery Leibin, Sidney Monas, Valery Podoroga, Donald Raleigh, Irina Rodnyanskaya, Maya Turovskaya

The Discovery of Chance

The Life and Thought of Alexander Herzen Aileen M. Kelly. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 10. 11. 12. 13. ... See Ernst Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution and Inheritance (Cambridge, MA, 1982), 338. 5.

The Discovery of Chance

The intellectual Alexander Herzen was as famous in his day as Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Aileen Kelly presents the first fully rounded study of the farsighted genius whom Isaiah Berlin called the forerunner of much twentieth-century thought. For Herzen, history, like Darwinian nature, was an improvisation both constrained and encouraged by chance.

The Story of Western Science From the Writings of Aristotle to the Big Bang Theory

André Klarsfeld and Frédéric Revah, The Biology of Death: Origins of Mortality, trans. ... Ernst Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought: Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance (Harvard University Press, 1982), 257–58. 6. Ibid.

The Story of Western Science  From the Writings of Aristotle to the Big Bang Theory

A riveting road map to the development of modern scientific thought. In the tradition of her perennial bestseller The Well-Educated Mind, Susan Wise Bauer delivers an accessible, entertaining, and illuminating springboard into the scientific education you never had. Far too often, public discussion of science is carried out by journalists, voters, and politicians who have received their science secondhand. The Story of Western Science shows us the joy and importance of reading groundbreaking science writing for ourselves and guides us back to the masterpieces that have changed the way we think about our world, our cosmos, and ourselves. Able to be referenced individually, or read together as the narrative of Western scientific development, the book's twenty-eight succinct chapters lead readers from the first science texts by Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle through twentieth-century classics in biology, physics, and cosmology. The Story of Western Science illuminates everything from mankind's earliest inquiries to the butterfly effect, from the birth of the scientific method to the rise of earth science and the flowering of modern biology. Each chapter recommends one or more classic books and provides entertaining accounts of crucial contributions to science, vivid sketches of the scientist-writers, and clear explanations of the mechanics underlying each concept. The Story of Western Science reveals science to be a dramatic undertaking practiced by some of history's most memorable characters. It reminds us that scientific inquiry is a human pursuit—an essential, often deeply personal, sometimes flawed, frequently brilliant way of understanding the world. The Story of Western Science is an "entertaining and unique synthesis" (Times Higher Education), a "fluidly written" narrative that "celebrates the inexorable force of human curiosity" (Wall Street Journal), and a "bright, informative resource for readers seeking to understand science through the eyes of the men and women who shaped its history" (Kirkus). Previously published as The Story of Science.

Empiricism and Darwin s Science

Sahlins is an anthropologist concerned with the (over-)use of optimality models in sociobiology. * Ibid., p. 293, p. 295. ... Cf. Ghiselin, The Triumph of the Darwinian Method, Ch. 2; Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought, p. 445ff.

Empiricism and Darwin   s Science

I would like to record my thanks to Paul Thompson for useful conver sations over the years, and also to several generations of students who have helped me develop my ideas on biological theory and on Darwin. My wife has, as usual, been more than helpful; in particular she typed a good portion of the manuscript while I was on leave a few years ago, more now than I like to remember. My parents were both looking forward to holding a final copy of this book. I only regret that my mother did not live long enough to see its completion. I must also thank the publishers and their staff. They have been re markably patient about meeting deadlines - promises were repeatedly made and then, owing to family situations, had to be broken - and for this I am considerably in their debt. I would further like to thank the following authors and publishers for permission to use their work: R. C. Lewontin, The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, Figure 1, p. 14; © 1964 Columbia University Press; reprinted here by kind permission of the author and publisher. F. Wilson, 'Goudge's Contribution to the Philosophy of Science', in L. W. Sumner, J. G. Slater, and F. Wilson (eds.), Pragmatism and Purpose: Essays in Honour of T. A. Goudge; © 1964 University of Toronto Press; reproduced here in part by kind permission of all the editors and the publisher.

The New Foundations of Evolution

Ernst Mayr and William Provine, eds., The evolutionary synthesis (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980); E. Mayr, The growth of biological thought (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982). 10. In 1982, Mayr was not convinced ...

The New Foundations of Evolution

This is the story of a profound revolution in the way biologists explore life's history, understand its evolutionary processes, and reveal its diversity. It is about life's smallest entities, deepest diversity, and greatest cellular biomass: the microbiosphere. Jan Sapp introduces us to a new field of evolutionary biology and a new brand of molecular evolutionists who descend to the foundations of evolution on Earth to explore the origins of the genetic system and the primary life forms from which all others have emerged. In so doing, he examines-from Lamarck to the present-the means of pursuing the evolution of complexity, and of depicting the greatest differences among organisms. The New Foundations of Evolution takes us into a world that classical evolutionists could never have imagined: a deep phylogeny based on three domains of life and multiple kingdoms, and created by mechanisms very unlike those considered by Darwin and his followers. Evolution by leaps seems to occur regularly in the microbial world where molecular evolutionists have shown the inheritance of acquired genes and genomes are major modes of evolutionary innovation. Revisiting the history of microbiology for the first time from the perspective of evolutionary biology, Sapp shows why classical Darwinian conceptions centering on questions of the origin of species were forged without a microbial foundation, why classical microbiologists considered it impossible to know the course of evolution, and classical molecular biologists considered the evolution of the molecular genetic system to be beyond understanding. In telling this stirring story of scientific iconoclasm, this book elucidates how the new evolutionary biology arose, what methods and assumptions underpin it, and the fiery controversies that continue to shape biologists' understanding of the foundations of evolution today.

American Genesis

Mayr, Growth of Biological Thought, 505–9. Ronald L. Numbers, Darwinism Comes to America (Cambridge, MA, 1998), 47. Darwin, On the Origin of Species, 486. Mayr, Growth of Biological Thought, 513–25. Excellent histories of evolutionary ...

American Genesis

"In American Genesis, Jeffrey P. Moran explores the ways in which the evolution debate has reverberated beyond the confines of state legislatures and courthouses. Using extensive research in newspapers, periodicals, and archives, Moran shows that social forces such as gender, regionalism, and race have intersected with the debate over evolution in ways that shed light on modern American culture."--Jacket.

The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing

Ernst Mayr from THE GROWTH OF BIOLOGICAL THOUGHT □ Igratefully admire those distinguished scientists whose native language is not English but who write it better than many native speakers. We have already met Dobzhansky (Russian), ...

The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing

Science.

Clausewitzian Friction and Future War

196 Lionel Tiger , “ The Cerebral Bridge from Family to Foe , ” in Sociobiology and Conflict : Evolutionary Perspectives on ... For the main principles of neo - Darwinian population genetics , see The Growth of Biological Thought , 551.

Clausewitzian Friction and Future War


Clausewitzian Friction and Future War

196 Lionel Tiger, “The Cerebral Bridge from Family to Foe,” in Sociobiology and Conflict: Evolutionary Perspectives on ... For the main principles of neo-Darwinian population genetics, see The Growth of Biological Thought, 551.

Clausewitzian Friction and Future War


Unifying Biology

The Evolutionary Synthesis and Evolutionary Biology Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis ... Study of the Theory of Evolution (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1961); Ernst Mayr, The Growth of Biological Thought (Cambridge, Mass.

Unifying Biology

Unifying Biology offers a historical reconstruction of one of the most important yet elusive episodes in the history of modern science: the evolutionary synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s. For more than seventy years after Darwin proposed his theory of evolution, it was hotly debated by biological scientists. It was not until the 1930s that opposing theories were finally refuted and a unified Darwinian evolutionary theory came to be widely accepted by biologists. Using methods gleaned from a variety of disciplines, Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis argues that the evolutionary synthesis was part of the larger process of unifying the biological sciences. At the same time that scientists were working toward a synthesis between Darwinian selection theory and modern genetics, they were, according to the author, also working together to establish an autonomous community of evolutionists. Smocovitis suggests that the drive to unify the sciences of evolution and biology was part of a global philosophical movement toward unifying knowledge. In developing her argument, she pays close attention to the problems inherent in writing the history of evolutionary science by offering historiographical reflections on the practice of history and the practice of science. Drawing from some of the most exciting recent approaches in science studies and cultural studies, she argues that science is a culture, complete with language, rituals, texts, and practices. Unifying Biology offers not only its own new synthesis of the history of modern evolution, but also a new way of "doing history."