The Guns of August 2008

This book is designed to present the facts about the events of August 2008 along with comprehensive coverage of the background to those events.

The Guns of August 2008

In the summer of 2008, a conflict that appeared to have begun in the breakaway Georgian territory of South Ossetia rapidly escalated to become the most significant crisis in European security in a decade. The implications of the Russian-Georgian war will be understood differently depending on one's narrative of what transpired and perspective on the broader context. This book is designed to present the facts about the events of August 2008 along with comprehensive coverage of the background to those events. It brings together a wealth of expertise on the South Caucasus and Russian foreign policy, with contributions by Russian, Georgian, European, and American experts on the region.

The Guns of August

A definitive Pulitzer Prize-winning recreation of the powderkeg that was Europe during the crucial first thirty days of World War I traces the actions of statesmen and patriots alike in Berlin, London, St. Petersburg, and Paris. Reprint.

The Guns of August

A definitive Pulitzer Prize-winning recreation of the powderkeg that was Europe during the crucial first thirty days of World War I traces the actions of statesmen and patriots alike in Berlin, London, St. Petersburg, and Paris. Reprint.

The Guns of August 2008

“Interior Minister Testifies Before War Commission,” Civil Georgia, 27 November 2008, www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=20032 36. “It was no Spontaneous, but Planned War,” Novaya Gazeta, 14 August 2008, ...

The Guns of August 2008

In the summer of 2008, a conflict that appeared to have begun in the breakaway Georgian territory of South Ossetia rapidly escalated to become the most significant crisis in European security in a decade. The implications of the Russian-Georgian war will be understood differently depending on one's narrative of what transpired and perspective on the broader context. This book is designed to present the facts about the events of August 2008 along with comprehensive coverage of the background to those events. It brings together a wealth of expertise on the South Caucasus and Russian foreign policy, with contributions by Russian, Georgian, European, and American experts on the region.

A Century of Crisis and Conflict in the International System

The Guns of August 2008: Russia's War in Georgia. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 2009, 10–27. Gordadze, Thornike. “The Georgian-Russian Relations in the 1990s.” In Svante E. Cornell and Frederick Starr (eds.), The Guns of August 2008: Russia's ...

A Century of Crisis and Conflict in the International System

This book is designed to present a fully developed theory of international crisis and conflict, along with substantial evidence of these two closely related phenomena. The book begins with a discussion of these topics at a theoretical level, defining and elaborating on core concepts: international crisis, interstate conflict, severity, and impact. This is followed by a discussion of the international system, along with two significant illustrations, the Berlin Blockade crisis (1948) and the India-Pakistan crisis over Kashmir (1965-66). The book then presents a unified model of crisis, focusing on the four phases of an international crisis, which incorporate the four periods of foreign policy crises for individual states. Findings from thirteen conflicts representing six regional clusters are then analyzed, concluding with a set of hypotheses and evidence on conflict onset, persistence, and resolution.

Russia and its Near Neighbours

hours on 8 August 2008' (Council of the European Union, 2009, p. 221). 7. See, too, Latynina, 2009b. 8. ... Cornell, Svante E. and S. Frederick Starr (eds) (2009) The Guns of August 2008: Russia's War in Georgia (Armonk,NY: M.E.Sharpe).

Russia and its Near Neighbours

Russia has recently re-emerged as the dominant political, economic and military actor in former Soviet nations. Kanet and Freire bring together a stellar cast of contributors to consider Russia's recent return as a major regional and international actor and its likely future policy toward its neighbours.

Georgia Revolution and War

The guns of August 2008. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 181Á195. Illarionov, A., 2009. The Russian leadership's preparation for war, 1999-008. In: S.E. Cornell and S.F. Starr, eds. The guns of August 2008. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, ...

Georgia  Revolution and War

The post-Soviet country of Georgia has generated surprise upon surprise. Its Rose Revolution in 2003 marked the first time an existing leadership of a post-Soviet state was forced to surrender power peacefully. The new leadership of Western-educated Mikheil Saakashvili initiated wide-ranging domestic reforms, including a large-scale, unprecedented anti-corruption drive. It also intensified relations with the West and sought membership of the EU and NATO. The Georgian leadership’s expressed aim of re-integrating territories lost in wars in the early 1990s resulted in a devastating conflict with Russia in 2008. All these developments, and their wider implications, receive careful yet readable attention in this collection by a truly international and specialist group of authors and practitioners. The book offers a spectrum of opinion and compelling insight into the events and decisions that have recently shaped this fascinating yet understudied country, and placed it at the forefront of interest in the changes transforming post-Soviet Eurasia. This book is based on a special issue of European Security.

Military Review

Major Chi K. Nguyen , USA , Fort Leavenworth , Kansas THE GUNS OF AUGUST 2008 : Russia's War in Georgia , Svante E. Cornell and S. Frederick Starr , M.E. Sharpe , Armonk , NY , 2009 , 271 pages , $ 24.95 . The title of The Guns of ...

Military Review


Professional Journal of the United States Army

Major Chi K. Nguyen , USA , Fort Leavenworth , Kansas THE GUNS OF AUGUST 2008 : Russia's War in Georgia , Svante E. Cornell and S. Frederick Starr , M.E. Sharpe , Armonk , NY , 2009 , 271 pages , $ 24.95 . The title of The Guns of ...

Professional Journal of the United States Army


Cyber Blockades

National Public Radio, September 9, 2008. Felgenhauer, Pavel. ““After August 7: The Escalation of the Russia-Georgia War.” Chap. 9 in The Guns of August 2008: Russia's War in Georgia. Edited by Svante E. Cornell and S. Frederick Starr, ...

Cyber Blockades

This is the first book to examine cyber blockades, which are large-scale attacks on infrastructure or systems that prevent a state from accessing cyberspace, thus preventing the transmission (ingress/egress) of data. The attack can take place through digital, physical, and/or electromagnetic means, and it can be conducted by another state or a sub-state group. The purpose of this book is to understand how cyber blockades can shut down or otherwise render cyberspace useless for an entire country, and Russell also seeks to understand the implications of cyber blockades for international relations. A cyber blockade can be either a legitimate or illegitimate tool depending on the circumstances. What is certain is that the state on the receiving end faces a serious threat to its political, military, economic, and social stability. The book includes two in-depth case studies of cyber blockades, Estonia in 2007 and Georgia in 2008, both of which suffered cyber attacks from Russia. Russell compares cyber blockades with those in other domains (sea, land, air, and space) and offers recommendations for policymakers and for further academic study.

Routledge Handbook of Russian Security

... Svante E. and Starr, Frederick (Eds.), The Guns of August 2008. Russia's War in Georgia. New York, London: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 162–180. Finn, Peter (2008a) 'Russian-Georgian Troops Clash in South Ossetia', Washington Post 8 August.

Routledge Handbook of Russian Security

The Routledge Handbook of Russian Security offers a comprehensive collection of essays on all aspects of Russian security and foreign policy by international scholars from across the world. The volume identifies key contemporary topics of research and debate and takes into account the changes that have occurred in the study of Russian security strategy since the end of the Cold War. The handbook is organised into five sections: The theory and nature of Russian security policy The domestic and foreign policy nexus Instruments used by Russia in pursuing its security Global and regional aspects of Russian security and foreign policy Case studies of Russian involvement in a series of security conflicts. The book concludes with case studies of the major examples of Russian involvement and operations in a series of security conflicts, including that in Georgia, the intervention in Ukraine and occupation of Crimea, and the ongoing Civil War in Syria. This volume will be of great interest to students of Russian security, strategic studies, foreign policy, European politics, and International Relations in general.

The Making of Modern Georgia 1918 2012

26 Russian Television Channel One, NTV, 31 August 2008. 27 James Sherr, “The Implications of the Russia–Georgia War for European Security,” in Svante E. Cornell and Frederick S. Starr (eds) The Guns of August 2008: Russia's War in ...

The Making of Modern Georgia  1918 2012

When most of Eastern Europe was struggling with dictatorships of one kind or another, the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921) established a constitution, a parliamentary system with national elections, an active opposition, and a free press. Like the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918, its successors emerged after 1991 from a bankrupt empire, and faced, yet again, the task of establishing a new economic, political and social system from scratch. In both 1918 and 1991, Georgia was confronted with a hostile Russia and followed a pro-Western and pro-democratic course. The top regional experts in this book explore the domestic and external parallels between the Georgian post-colonial governments of the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries. How did the inexperienced Georgian leaders in both eras deal with the challenge of secessionism, what were their state building strategies, and what did democracy mean to them? What did their electoral systems look like, why were their economic strategies so different, and how did they negotiate with the international community neighbouring threats. These are the central challenges of transitional governments around the world today. Georgia’s experience over one hundred years suggests that both history and contemporary political analysis offer the best (and most interesting) explanation of the often ambivalent outcomes.

The Russian Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev 2008 2012

7, August-September 2008; Edward Lucas, The New Cold War: Putin's Russia and the Threat to the West. London: Bloomsbury, 2008; Frederick Starr, Svante E. Cornell, eds. The Guns of August 2008. Russia's War in Georgia, ...

The Russian Presidency of Dmitry Medvedev  2008 2012

The term "tandem" was used to describe the Putin-Medvedev combination which ruled Russia from 2008 to 2012, when Medvedev was president and Putin prime minister. Many people saw Putin as the real wielder of power, with Medvedev as his puppet. Others, however, saw Medvedev as a visionary, someone who envisioned large scale schemes - even though these schemes have not yet come to fruition. At the same time, many in the West regarded Medvedev favourably, and gave him credit for raising expectations among both the elite and the middle classes in Russia in such a way as to make it difficult for the Russian state to return to its old ways. This book presents a comprehensive survey of the Medvedev presidency, covering all areas including politics, the economy, international relations and social developments. The author concludes that it is still too early to assess Medvedev's achievements definitively.

Publications Combined Russia s Regular And Special Forces In The Regional And Global War On Terror

250 Cornell and Starr, The Guns of August 2008: Russia's War in Georgia, 3. See also the description of this seeding of Russian reporters into the conflict zone days before the invasion as described by Johanna Popjanevski in The Guns of ...

Publications Combined  Russia s Regular And Special Forces In The Regional And Global War On Terror

Over 2,400 total pages ... Russian outrage following the September 2004 hostage disaster at North Ossetia’s Beslan Middle School No.1 was reflected in many ways throughout the country. The 52-hour debacle resulted in the death of some 344 civilians, including more than 170 children, in addition to unprecedented losses of elite Russian security forces and the dispatch of most Chechen/allied hostage-takers themselves. It quickly became clear, as well, that Russian authorities had been less than candid about the number of hostages held and the extent to which they were prepared to deal with the situation. Amid grief, calls for retaliation, and demands for reform, one of the more telling reactions in terms of hardening public perspectives appeared in a national poll taken several days after the event. Some 54% of citizens polled specifically judged the Russian security forces and the police to be corrupt and thus complicit in the failure to deal adequately with terrorism, while 44% thought that no lessons for the future would be learned from the tragedy. This pessimism was the consequence not just of the Beslan terrorism, but the accumulation of years of often spectacular failures by Russian special operations forces (SOF, in the apt US military acronym). A series of Russian SOF counterterrorism mishaps, misjudgments, and failures in the 1990s and continuing to the present have made the Kremlin’s special operations establishment in 2005 appear much like Russia’s old Mir space station—wired together, unpredictable, and subject to sudden, startling failures. But Russia continued to maintain and expand a large, variegated special operations establishment which had borne the brunt of combat actions in Afghanistan, Chechnya, and other trouble spots, and was expected to serve as the nation’s principal shield against terrorism in all its forms. Known since Soviet days for tough personnel, personal bravery, demanding training, and a certain rough or brutal competence that not infrequently violated international human rights norms, it was supposed that Russian special operations forces—steeped in their world of “threats to the state” and associated with once-dreaded military and national intelligence services—could make valuable contributions to countering terrorism. The now widely perceived link between “corrupt” special forces on the one hand, and counterterrorism failures on the other, reflected the further erosion of Russia’s national security infrastructure in the eyes of both Russian citizens and international observers. There have been other, more ambiguous, but equally unsettling dimensions of Russian SOF activity as well, that have strong internal and external political aspects. These constitute the continuing assertions from Russian media, the judicial system, and other Federal agencies and officials that past and current members of the SOF establishment have organized to pursue interests other than those publicly declared by the state or allowed under law. This includes especially the alleged intent to punish by assassination those individuals and groups that they believe have betrayed Russia. The murky nature of these alleged activities has formed a backdrop to other problems in the special units.

Russia as a Network State

'The Russian Leadership's Preparation for War, 1998–2008'. In S. E. Cornell and S. F. Starr (eds). The Guns of August 2008: Russia's War against Georgia. Armonk NY & London: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 49–84. 5. From the plethora of articles on ...

Russia as a Network State

Discusses the ambiguous nature of the state in Russia, focusing on elite networks and their role in policy processes. This book examines the paradoxical dualism of state institutions and ruling networks, providing answers as to why some decisions are not implemented, and why the state exists despite the systemic inefficiency of its institutions.

Georgian Lessons

The August 2008 war was a logical consequence of this policy, which also helped to remove the UN and OSCE missions from the secessionist zones and allowed Russia to pursue partition. The mandate of the OSCE observer mission in Georgia ...

Georgian Lessons

Russia's invasion, occupation, and partition of Georgia in August 2008 initially sent shock waves throughout Europe and NATO and appeared to signal a new confrontational phase in Moscow's relations with the West. This volume places the conflict in the context of Russia's broader objectives, its internal weaknesses, the limitations of EU and NATO policies, and America's security priorities.First, the Georgian conflict underscored Moscow's determination to reclaim an extensive zone of dominance corresponding with the former Soviet territories. Second, it displayed a shrewd calculation by the Kremlin about the fractured and ineffective Western response, and Moscow continues to test the Obama administration's rapprochement in pursuing its expansionist ambitions. Third, the 2008 conflict had a lasting impact on the Central-East European and post-Soviet states most exposed to pressures from Moscow. While the former demanded more tangible security guarantees from NATO, the latter either sought accommodation with Russia or intensified their protective strategies. Additionally, beneath the veneer of success, the conduct of the war, the economic recession, escalating separatist sentiments, and faltering attempts by Moscow to make the country more globally competitive revealed Russia's long-term weaknesses in the midst of its attempted neo-imperial restoration. The study concludes with succinct recommendations on how the transatlantic alliance can more effectively handle Russian ambitions and prepare itself to deter or manage future crises.

Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Bigg, Claire (2008) “Georgia Woes Could Send Ripple Through Other Frozen Conflicts”, RFERL war report, August 27. http://www.rferl.org/content/ ... Cornell, Svante and Starr, S. Frederick (eds) (2009) The Guns of August 2008.

Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

After the collapse of the Soviet Union expectations were high that a 'new world order' was emerging in which Russia and the other former Soviet republics would join the Western community of nations. That has not occurred. This volume explains the reasons for this failure and assesses likely future developments in that relationship

Near Abroad

See http://www.georgianjournal .ge/politics/26639-in-georgia-mistake-was-made-by-saakashvili-mccainabout-2008-russia-georgia-war.html. Cornell and Starr, The Guns of August 2008; Van Herpen, Putin's Wars. Secretary Rice in her memoir ...

Near Abroad

" Vladimir Putin's intervention into the Georgia/South Ossetia conflict in summer 2008 was quickly recognized by Western critics as an attempt by Russia to increase its presence and power in the "near abroad," or the independent states of the former Soviet Union that Russia still regards as its wards. Though the global economic recession that began in 2008 moved the incident to the back of the world's mind, Russia surged to the forefront again six years later when they invaded the heavily Russian Crimea in Ukraine and annexed it. In contrast to the earlier Georgia episode, this new conflict has generated a crisis of global proportions, forcing European countries to rethink their relationship with Russia and their reliance on it for energy supplies, as Russia was now squeezing natural gas from what is technically Ukraine. In Near Abroad, the eminent political geographer Gerard Toal analyzes Russia's recent offensive actions in the near abroad, focusing in particular on the ways in which both the West and Russia have relied on Cold War-era rhetorical and emotional tropes that distort as much as they clarify. In response to Russian aggression, US critics quickly turned to tried-and-true concepts like "spheres of influence" to condemn the Kremlin. Russia in turn has brought back its long tradition of criticizing western liberalism and degeneracy to grandly rationalize its behavior in what are essentially local border skirmishes. It is this tendency to resort to the frames of earlier eras that has led the conflicts to "jump scales," moving from the regional to the global level in short order. The ambiguities and contradictions that result when nations marshal traditional geopolitical arguments-rooted in geography, territory, and old understandings of distance-further contributes to the escalation of these conflicts. Indeed, Russia's belligerence toward Georgia stemmed from concern about its possible entry into NATO, an organization of states thousands of miles away. American hawks also strained credulity by portraying Georgia as a nearby ally in need of assistance. Similarly, the threat of NATO to the Ukraine looms large in the Kremlin's thinking, and many Ukrainians themselves self-identify with the West despite their location in Eastern Europe. "--

Conflict Resolution in South Caucasus

Jim Nicol, “Russia-Georgia conflict in August 2008: Context and Implications for U.S. Interests,” Congressional ... Duress: The West and the Georgian Crisis Before the 2008 War,” in The Guns of August 2008: Russia's War in Georgia, eds.

Conflict Resolution in South Caucasus

This book explores challenges to international conflict resolution efforts in the South Caucasus. It examines the efforts made by the UN, the OSCE, and the EU, and by the states of Russia, Turkey, and the United States. The conflict is analyzed through the theoretical frameworks of neorealism, constructivism, and neoclassical realism.

The August War in Georgia Foreign Media Coverage

(2008): Content Analysis. Volume I. Zrinski, Croatia: SAGE. Goble, Paul A.: Defining Victory and Defeat: The Information War between Russia and Georgia. In: Cornell, Svante E.& Starr Frederick (ed.) (2009): The Guns of August 2008.

The August War in Georgia  Foreign Media Coverage

Reporting on a foreign war or a crisis is a challenging activity, a true professional test for a journalist. Media is often criticized for promoting violence by its conflict reporting: either by staying detached or by being biased. Peace, or conflict-sensitive, journalism was created for improvement of conflict coverage: it emphasizes the active role of journalists in de-escalation of conflict and encourages them to report on peaceful solutions. This relatively novel approach might be met with skepticism, as it appears too idealistic and demanding to be followed by journalists. In order to verify the applicability of peace journalism, this book presents a comparative analysis of six US, UK and German newspapers on how conflict-sensitive, or at least balanced, they were in their reporting on the Russia-Georgia war of 2008. The content analysis of those six media has demonstrated that the peace journalism approach is not easy to implement into practice due to some imperfections of its models; its parameters need to become more feasible and more specific. The case study has showed that those particular western media were neither conflict-sensitive nor war-oriented in their coverage of the Russia-Georgia war, and thus they kept the in-between stance. Overall, the reporting was balanced, particularly in its negative attitude towards all parties involved in the conflict.

China s Strategic Priorities

The Guns of August 2008. S. Markedonov, 'Caucasus Conflict Breaks Old Rules of the Game', Russian Analytical Digest, 45, Zurich: Center for Security Studies, ETH, 2008. B. Rezvani, 'The Ossetian-Ingush Confrontation: Explaining a ...

China   s Strategic Priorities

The People’s Republic of China is the world’s most populous state and largest consumer of energy, having demonstrated momentous progress on an unprecedented scale. This global power has increasingly shaped international relations as a result of its population size, economic development and political character. Identifying the most significant new issues and problems that have arisen from China’s rapid development, this book examines the evolution of China’s contemporary foreign policy and international relations. In doing so, it underlines the global importance of China’s management of its own politics and economics, and demonstrates how all nation-states have a vested interest in —and to varying degrees are liable for —the consequences of Chinese actions. The book aims to spark debate by drawing attention to these critical issues; placing them on the scholarly agenda as well as that of the practitioner. It provides factual evidence, progressive findings, justification and a rationale for action, expert analysis, and the resulting policy prescriptions. In addition, the book highlights the liable costs of failing to address China’s strategic priorities. This interdisciplinary book draws attention to the most pressing issues that China must address for universal benefit, and will be of great interest to students and scholars of International Relations, Chinese Studies and Political Science.