*The main item in the present volume was published in 1930 under the title Das Unendliche in der Mathematik und seine Ausschaltung.*

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# The Infinite in Mathematics

The main item in the present volume was published in 1930 under the title Das Unendliche in der Mathematik und seine Ausschaltung. It was at that time the fullest systematic account from the standpoint of Husserl's phenomenology of what is known as 'finitism' (also as 'intuitionism' and 'constructivism') in mathematics. Since then, important changes have been required in philosophies of mathematics, in part because of Kurt Godel's epoch-making paper of 1931 which established the essential in completeness of arithmetic. In the light of that finding, a number of the claims made in the book (and in the accompanying articles) are demon strably mistaken. Nevertheless, as a whole it retains much of its original interest and value. It presents the issues in the foundations of mathematics that were under debate when it was written (and in some cases still are); , and it offers one alternative to the currently dominant set-theoretical definitions of the cardinal numbers and other arithmetical concepts. While still a student at the University of Vienna, Felix Kaufmann was greatly impressed by the early philosophical writings (especially by the Logische Untersuchungen) of Edmund Husser!' He was never an uncritical disciple of Husserl, and he integrated into his mature philosophy ideas from a wide assortment of intellectual sources. But he thought of himself as a phenomenologist, and made frequent use in all his major publications of many of Husserl's logical and epistemological theses.
# How To Measure The Infinite Mathematics With Infinite And Infinitesimal Numbers

'This text shows that the study of the almost-forgotten, non-Archimedean mathematics deserves to be utilized more intently in a variety of fields within the larger domain of applied mathematics.'CHOICEThis book contains an original introduction to the use of infinitesimal and infinite numbers, namely, the Alpha-Theory, which can be considered as an alternative approach to nonstandard analysis.The basic principles are presented in an elementary way by using the ordinary language of mathematics; this is to be contrasted with other presentations of nonstandard analysis where technical notions from logic are required since the beginning. Some applications are included and aimed at showing the power of the theory.The book also provides a comprehensive exposition of the Theory of Numerosity, a new way of counting (countable) infinite sets that maintains the ancient Euclid's Principle: 'The whole is larger than its parts'. The book is organized into five parts: Alpha-Calculus, Alpha-Theory, Applications, Foundations, and Numerosity Theory.
# To Infinity and Beyond

Eli Maor examines the role of infinity in mathematics and geometry and its cultural impact on the arts and sciences. He evokes the profound intellectual impact the infinite has exercised on the human mind, from the "horror infiniti" of the Greeks to the works of M.C. Escher; from the ornamental designs of the Moslems, to the sage Giordano Bruno, whose belief in an infinite universe led to his death at the hands of the Inquisition. But above all, the book describes the mathematician's fascination with infinity, a fascination mingled with puzzlement. "Maor explores the idea of infinity in mathematics and in art and argues that this is the point of contact between the two, best exemplified by the work of the Dutch artist M.C. Escher, six of whose works are shown here in beautiful color plates."--Los Angeles Times "[Eli Maor's] enthusiasm for the topic carries the reader through a rich panorama." Choice "Fascinating and enjoyable.... places the ideas of infinity in a cultural context and shows how they have been espoused and molded by mathematics."-Science.
# The Mathematics of Infinity

A balanced and clearly explained treatment of infinity in mathematics. The concept of infinity has fascinated and confused mankind for centuries with concepts and ideas that cause even seasoned mathematicians to wonder. For instance, the idea that a set is infinite if it is not a finite set is an elementary concept that jolts our common sense and imagination. the Mathematics of Infinity: A guide to Great Ideas uniquely explores how we can manipulate these ideas when our common sense rebels at the conclusions we are drawing. Writing with clear knowledge and affection for the subject, the author introduces and explores infinite sets, infinite cardinals, and ordinals, thus challenging the readers' intuitive beliefs about infinity. Requiring little mathematical training and a healthy curiosity, the book presents a user-friendly approach to ideas involving the infinite. readers will discover the main ideas of infinite cardinals and ordinal numbers without experiencing in-depth mathematical rigor. Classic arguments and illustrative examples are provided throughout the book and are accompanied by a gradual progression of sophisticated notions designed to stun your intuitive view of the world. With a thoughtful and balanced treatment of both concepts and theory, The Mathematics of Infinity focuses on the following topics: * Sets and Functions * Images and Preimages of Functions * Hilbert's Infinite Hotel * Cardinals and Ordinals * The Arithmetic of Cardinals and Ordinals * the Continuum Hypothesis * Elementary Number Theory * The Riemann Hypothesis * The Logic of Paradoxes Recommended as recreational reading for the mathematically inquisitive or as supplemental reading for curious college students, the Mathematics of Infinity: A Guide to Great Ideas gently leads readers into the world of counterintuitive mathematics.
# Georg Cantor

One of the greatest revolutions in mathematics occurred when Georg Cantor (1845-1918) promulgated his theory of transfinite sets. This revolution is the subject of Joseph Dauben's important studythe most thorough yet writtenof the philosopher and mathematician who was once called a "corrupter of youth" for an innovation that is now a vital component of elementary school curricula. Set theory has been widely adopted in mathematics and philosophy, but the controversy surrounding it at the turn of the century remains of great interest. Cantor's own faith in his theory was partly theological. His religious beliefs led him to expect paradoxes in any concept of the infinite, and he always retained his belief in the utter veracity of transfinite set theory. Later in his life, he was troubled by recurring attacks of severe depression. Dauben shows that these played an integral part in his understanding and defense of set theory.
# Understanding the Infinite

How can the infinite, a subject so remote from our finite experience, be an everyday tool for the working mathematician? Blending history, philosophy, mathematics, and logic, Shaughan Lavine answers this question with exceptional clarity. Making use of the mathematical work of Jan Mycielski, he demonstrates that knowledge of the infinite is possible, even according to strict standards that require some intuitive basis for knowledge.
# The Mathematics of Infinity

# Infinity and the Mind

A dynamic exploration of infinity In Infinity and the Mind, Rudy Rucker leads an excursion to that stretch of the universe he calls the “Mindscape,” where he explores infinity in all its forms: potential and actual, mathematical and physical, theological and mundane. Using cartoons, puzzles, and quotations to enliven his text, Rucker acquaints us with staggeringly advanced levels of infinity, delves into the depths beneath daily awareness, and explains Kurt Gödel’s belief in the possibility of robot consciousness. In the realm of infinity, mathematics, science, and logic merge with the fantastic. By closely examining the paradoxes that arise, we gain profound insights into the human mind, its powers, and its limitations. This Princeton Science Library edition includes a new preface by the author.
# The Art of the Infinite

A witty, conversational, and accessible tour of math's profoundest mysteries. Mathematical symbols, for mathematicians, store worlds of meaning, leap continents and centuries. But we need not master symbols to grasp the magnificent abstractions they represent, and to which all art aspires. Through language, anyone can come to delight in the works of mathematical art, which are among our kind's greatest glories. Taking the concept of infinity, in its countless guises, as a starting point and a helpful touchstone, the founders of Harvard's pioneering Math Circle program Robert and Ellen Kaplan guide us through the “Republic of Numbers,” where we meet both its upstanding citizens and its more shadowy dwellers, explore realms where only the imagination can go, and grapple with math's most profound uncertainties, including the question of truth itself-do we discover mathematical principles, or invent them?
# Understanding Infinity

Conceived by the author as an introduction to "why the calculus works," this volume offers a 4-part treatment: an overview; a detailed examination of the infinite processes arising in the realm of numbers; an exploration of the extent to which familiar geometric notions depend on infinite processes; and the evolution of the concept of functions. 1982 edition.
# Eight Lessons on Infinity

A fun, non-technical and wonderfully engaging guide to that most powerful and mysterious of mathematical concepts: infinity.in this book, best-selling author and mathematician Haim Shapira presents an introduction to mathematical theories which deal with the most beautiful concept ever invented by humankind: infinity. In this book, best-selling author and mathematician Haim Shapira presents an introduction to mathematical theories which deal with the most beautiful concept ever invented by humankind: infinity. Written in clear, simple language and aimed at a lay audience, this book also offers some strategies that will allow readers to try their ability at solving truly fascinating mathematical problems. Infinity is a deeply counter-intuitive concept that has inspired many great thinkers. In this book we will meet many sages, both familiar and unfamiliar: Zeno and Pythagoras, Georg Cantor and Bertrand Russell, Sofia Kovalevskaya and Emmy Noether, al-Khwarizmi and Euclid, Sophie Germain and Srinivasa Ramanujan.The world of infinity is inhabited by many paradoxes, and so is this book: Zeno paradoxes, Hilbert's "Infinity Hotel", Achilles and the gods paradox, the paradox of heaven and hell, the Ross-Littlewood paradox involving tennis balls, the Galileo paradox and many more. Aimed at the curious but non-technical reader, this book refrains from using any fearsome mathematical symbols. It uses only the most basic operations of mathematics: adding, subtracting, multiplication, division, powers and roots – that is all. But that doesn’t mean that a bit of deep thinking won’t be necessary and rewarding. Writing with humour and lightness of touch, Haim Shapira banishes the chalky pallor of the schoolroom and offers instead a truly thrilling intellectual journey. Fasten your seatbelt – we are going to Infinity, and beyond!
# Paradoxes of the Infinite Routledge Revivals

Paradoxes of the Infinite presents one of the most insightful, yet strangely unacknowledged, mathematical treatises of the 19th century: Dr Bernard Bolzano’s Paradoxien. This volume contains an adept translation of the work itself by Donald A. Steele S.J., and in addition an historical introduction, which includes a brief biography as well as an evaluation of Bolzano the mathematician, logician and physicist.
# The Infinite

Anyone who has pondered the limitlessness of space and time, or the endlessness of numbers, or the perfection of God will recognize the special fascination of this question. Adrian Moore's historical study of the infinite covers all its aspects, from the mathematical to the mystical.
# Life on the Infinite Farm

Mathematics professor from Brown University uses colorful illustrations and cartoons to display the concepts of infinity and large numbers.
# Roads to Infinity

Offers an introduction to modern ideas about infinity and their implications for mathematics. It unifies ideas from set theory and mathematical logic, and traces their effects on mainstream mathematical topics of today, such as number theory and combinatorics.--From publisher description.
# Levels of Infinity

This original anthology collects 10 of Weyl's less-technical writings that address the broader scope and implications of mathematics. Most have been long unavailable or not previously published in book form. Subjects include logic, topology, abstract algebra, relativity theory, and reflections on the work of Weyl's mentor, David Hilbert. 2012 edition.
# The Infinite in Mathematics

# Taming the Infinite

From ancient Babylon to the last great unsolved problems, Ian Stewart brings us his definitive history of mathematics. In his famous straightforward style, Professor Stewart explains each major development--from the first number systems to chaos theory--and considers how each affected society and changed everyday life forever. Maintaining a personal touch, he introduces all of the outstanding mathematicians of history, from the key Babylonians, Greeks and Egyptians, via Newton and Descartes, to Fermat, Babbage and Godel, and demystifies math's key concepts without recourse to complicated formulae. Written to provide a captivating historic narrative for the non-mathematician, Taming the Infinite is packed with fascinating nuggets and quirky asides, and contains 100 illustrations and diagrams to illuminate and aid understanding of a subject many dread, but which has made our world what it is today.
# The Infinite in Mathematics

# Philosophy of the Infinite

Infinity is a fascinating subject. What do we mean when we use the concept of infinity? What did the ancient Greeks mean? What do modern mathematicians mean when they use infinity in their calculations? What are the debates of contemporary philosophers of mathematics regarding the infinite? This book, starting from Aristotle and Plato, tries to retrace the steps that led to contemporary conceptions of infinity. The book also deals with the first mathematical problem of the twentieth century on Hilbert's list with no solution that has correlations with the concept of infinity. Is the mathematical universe unique or do we have infinite parallel universes with different truths? This is a question related to the concept of infinity and the book tries to answer it. The goal of this book is to make the mathematics of infinity accessible by showing the most incredible mathematical results of the last century and deepening the themes of contemporary debates in mathematics and philosophy regarding infinity. EMANUELE GAMBETTA obtained his PHD in philosophy of mathematics from the Scuola Normale Superiore with cum laude mark. He was a visiting research student at the university of Barcelona where he participated in the seminars of the set theory center. He has been a visiting graduate student in many universities around the world. Infinity is a fascinating subject. What do we mean when we use the concept of infinity? What did the ancient Greeks mean? What do modern mathematicians mean when they use infinity in their calculations? What are the debates of contemporary philosophers of mathematics regarding the infinite? This book, starting from Aristotle and Plato, tries to retrace the steps that led to contemporary conceptions of infinity. The book also deals with the first mathematical problem of the twentieth century on Hilbert's list with no solution that has correlations with the concept of infinity. Is the mathematical universe unique or do we have infinite parallel universes with different truths? This is a question related to the concept of infinity and the book tries to answer it. The goal of this book is to make the mathematics of infinity accessible by showing the most incredible mathematical results of the last century and deepening the themes of contemporary debates in mathematics and philosophy regarding infinity. EMANUELE GAMBETTA obtained his PHD in philosophy of mathematics from the Scuola Normale Superiore with cum laude mark. He was a visiting research student at the university of Barcelona where he participated in the seminars of the set theory center. He has been a visiting graduate student in many universities around the world. Infinity is a fascinating subject. What do we mean when we use the concept of infinity? What did the ancient Greeks mean? What do modern mathematicians mean when they use infinity in their calculations? What are the debates of contemporary philosophers of mathematics regarding the infinite? This book, starting from Aristotle and Plato, tries to retrace the steps that led to contemporary conceptions of infinity. The book also deals with the first mathematical problem of the twentieth century on Hilbert's list with no solution that has correlations with the concept of infinity. Is the mathematical universe unique or do we have infinite parallel universes with different truths? This is a question related to the concept of infinity and the book tries to answer it. The goal of this book is to make the mathematics of infinity accessible by showing the most incredible mathematical results of the last century and deepening the themes of contemporary debates in mathematics and philosophy regarding infinity. EMANUELE GAMBETTA obtained his PHD in philosophy of mathematics from the Scuola Normale Superiore with cum laude mark. He was a visiting research student at the university of Barcelona where he participated in the seminars of the set theory center. He has been a visiting graduate student in many universities around the world.