The Inflammasomes

With the contributions of leading international experts in the field, this book provides an extensive overview of the current knowledge of inflammasome biology and their role in health and disease.

The Inflammasomes

The inflammasome was first described in 2002 as a molecular complex activating proinflammatory caspases and therefore regulating the maturation and biological activities of cytokines such as IL-1 and IL-18. This finding was substantiated by the identification of several mutations in the cias1 gene, encoding the human NLRP3 protein, responsible for several autoinflammatory disorders such as the Muckle Wells syndrome. Since, the interest for this complex has constantly increased and several inflammasome complexes with different specificities have been described. These inflammasomes sense a wide variety of pathogens and danger signals and are key players in the inflammatory response. With the contributions of leading international experts in the field, this book provides an extensive overview of the current knowledge of inflammasome biology and their role in health and disease.

The Inflammasome

In The Inflammasome: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail methods and protocols to study multiple aspects of inflammasome function.

The Inflammasome

This Methods in Molecular Biology book offers methods for studying inflammasome function, including generation of inflammasome stimuli, monitoring of caspase-1 activity and processing, activation of IL-1β cytokines, plus lab protocols, material lists and tips.

Inflammasomes Clinical and Therapeutic Implications

This volume focuses on the role of inflammasomes in a variety of diseases and their therapeutic options. It gives an overview of the current studies elucidating the molecular implications in the medical and clinical contexts.

Inflammasomes  Clinical and Therapeutic Implications

The inflammasome is a protein complex composed of an intracellular sensor—typically a Nod-like receptor (NLR), the precursor procaspase-1, and the adaptor ASC. Inflammasome activation leads to the maturation of caspase-1 and the processing of its substrates, IL-1β and IL-18. The inflammasome has been implicated numerous diseases, and blockade of inflammasome-derived IL-1β has beneficial effects on several of these diseases. Different books have been edited about the biology of inflammasomes and about methods to study, however, the implication of this complex in the different diseases and pathological conditions show the need of a book about the clinical implications and therapeutic options. This project will show the context where inflammasomes are being studied and the molecular implications in the medical and clinical contexts. Other important topic of the inflammasomes will be the development of pharmacological inhibitors in order to improve new clinical applications. In this sense, we can find new drugs with inhibitory effects or old drugs with an inhibitory potential effect. There is a need for re-establishing the real benefits of the inflammasome inhibitions in pathological situations and the management of the differents diseases where inflammasomes are implicated.

The inflammasome and its role in infections

INFLAMMASOME REGULATION Because of the paramount effects of caspase-1 during infection and inflammation, regulation of the inflammasome pathway is tightly controlled through a number of checkpoints (Figure 1).

The inflammasome and its role in infections


Comparative Chemical Characterization of Lunasin enriched Preparations and Modifications of the Inflammasomes in Vitro

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most cultivated crops in the world providing the population with large amounts of protein and oil.

Comparative Chemical Characterization of Lunasin enriched Preparations and Modifications of the Inflammasomes in Vitro

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most cultivated crops in the world providing the population with large amounts of protein and oil. In addition to its nutritional composition, soybean also contains biologically active compounds with potential health-promoting properties. The presence of these bioactives may be responsible for the lower incidence of chronic diseases in populations that consume a significant portion of soybeans in their diet. One group of soybean-derived bioactives are bioactive peptides and proteins including lunasin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (KTI). The overall objective of this research was to develop a method of preparing lunasin-enriched material and evaluate the ability of lunasin-enriched material to inhibit activation of the inflammasomes in vitro. Lunasin-enriched materials were prepared using calcium chloride and pH precipitation methods and compared with two commercially-available lunasin-enriched products. The stability of lunasin against pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis was evaluated in these materials and the effect of BBI and KTI concentrations were analyzed. Lunasin concentrations ranged from 8.5 to 71.0 [lower case mu]g [microgram]/g pre-hydrolysis and 4.0 to 13.2 [lower case mu]g/g after hydrolysis. In all products tested, lunasin concentration after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis (PPH) significantly correlated with BBI and KTI concentrations. One lunasin-enriched preparation was evaluated for its ability to modify activation of the inflammasomes in vitro using THP-1 human macrophages. Aberrant activation of the inflammasomes is associated with development of human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and inflammatory bowel diseases. The activation of the inflammasomes in THP-1 human macrophages was accomplished by priming with lipopolysaccharide followed by adenosine triphosphate. Lunasin-enriched material was added during the priming step at concentrations ranging from 0.0625 to 0.25 mg/mL. Addition of lunasin-enriched preparation led to reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which correlated with reduction in the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1[lower case beta](beta) and interleukin-18. These results indicate that ROSs play an integral role in lunasin's ability to inhibit inflammation and inflammasomes' activation. This research is the first to report on the role of Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor on the stability of lunasin against PPH and potential of lunasin-enriched preparations as chemopreventive agent against diseases associated with aberrant activation of the inflammasomes.

Textbook of Autoinflammation

inflammasome component proteins as well as the pro-cytokines. ... or related proteins result in hyperactivation or constitutive activation of inflammasomes and have been described in a growing group of autoinflammatory diseases.

Textbook of Autoinflammation

This book, the first complete textbook on this novel field in Medicine, comprehensively covers the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, genetics, and latest management strategies for autoinflammatory disorders as well as the basic science of autoinflammation. Relevant concepts such as how translational science of genetics and immunology relates to the innate immune system and autoinflammation are covered. Descriptions of the monogenic and polygenic/complex diseases that fall under the umbrella of autoinflammatory diseases are provided. Further topics covered include the latest clinical and genetic diagnostic approaches, concepts on the relationship between autoinflammation and autoimmunity/immunodeficiency, the role of autoinflammation in cancer, treatments and management strategies for these diseases, and potential areas of future development. The Textbook of Autoinflammation systematically describes and reviews diagnostic and treatment options for autoinflammatory disorders as well as all aspects of the concept of autoinflammation, and represents a valuable resource for professionals in a variety of disciplines who encounter these patients or who study autoinflammation.

Bacterial Exotoxins How Bacteria Fight the Immune System

Activation of inflammasomes leads to activation of caspase-1 and maturation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory ... Inflammasome sensor proteins have evolved to detect a range of microbial ligands and bacterial exotoxins either ...

Bacterial Exotoxins  How Bacteria Fight the Immune System

Bacterial pathogenicity factors are functionally diverse. They may facilitate the adhesion and colonization of bacteria, influence the host immune response, assist spreading of the bacterium by e.g. evading recognition by immune cells, or allow bacteria to dwell within protected niches inside the eukaryotic cell. Exotoxins can be single polypeptides or heteromeric protein complexes that act on different parts of the cells. At the cell surface, they may insert into the membrane to cause damage; bind to receptors to initiate their uptake; or facilitate the interaction with other cell types. For example, bacterial superantigens specifically bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells and the T cell receptor, while cytolysins cause pore formation. For intracellular activity, exotoxins need to be translocated across the eukaryotic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria can directly inject effector proteins in a receptor-independent manner by use of specialized needle apparatus such as bacterial type II, III, or type IV secretion systems. Other methods of translocation include the phagocytic uptake of bacteria followed by toxin secretion, or receptor-mediated endocytosis which allows the targeting of distinct cell types. Receptor-based uptake is initiated by the binding of heteromeric toxin complexes to the cell surface and completed by the translocation of the effector protein(s) across the endosomal membrane. In the cytosol, toxins interact with specific eukaryotic target proteins to cause post-translational modifications that often result in the manipulation of cellular signalling cascades and inflammatory responses. It has become evident that the actions of some bacterial toxins may exceed their originally assumed cytotoxic function. For example, pore-forming toxins do not only cause cytolysis, but may also induce autophagy, pyroptosis, or activation of the MAPK pathways, resulting in adjustment of the host immune response to infection and modification of inflammatory responses both locally and systemically. Other recently elucidated examples of the immunomodulatory function of cell death-inducing exotoxins include TcdB of Clostridium difficile which activates the inflammasome through modification of cellular Rho GTPases, or the Staphyloccocus d-toxin which activates mast cells. The goal of this research topic was to gather current knowledge on the interaction of bacterial exotoxins and effector proteins with the host immune system. The following 16 research and review articles in this special issue describe mechanisms of immune modification and evasion and provide an overview over the complexity of bacterial toxin interaction with different cells of the immune system.

Endopeptidases Advances in Research and Application 2011 Edition

(2010 DEC 14) Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center: IL-1 beta processing in host defense: beyond the inflammasomes New research, 'IL-1beta processing in host defense: beyond the inflammasomes,' is the subject of a report.

Endopeptidases  Advances in Research and Application  2011 Edition

Endopeptidases: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Endopeptidases. The editors have built Endopeptidases: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Endopeptidases in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Endopeptidases: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Immuno Psychiatry

The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008;9(8):857–65. 46. Minkiewicz J, de Rivero Vaccari JP, Keane RW. Human astrocytes express a novel NLRP2 inflammasome. Glia.

Immuno Psychiatry

This book presents a thorough and critical review of current knowledge on the role of immunology in major psychiatric disorders and its potential applications. The opening chapters offer general information on the immune influence of the brain to provide readers with a better understanding of the end of immune privilege. The book then examines possible underlying mechanisms leading to psychiatric disorders, from early infections to pro-inflammatory markers, stress, and immune genetic background, linking etiology and psychiatry. The third section describes each disorder (ie autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression...) with an overview of underlying immune dysfunctions. Lastly, the authors discuss the innovative immune-therapies that may result from the discovery of immune system biomarkers and their associated mechanisms. A better understanding of the role of the immune system in psychiatric disorders makes it possible to identify stratification biomarkers, to explain underlying mechanisms, and to develop innovative, efficient, targeted treatment strategies and management. As such, the book is of value to clinicians, mental health professionals, mental health researchers, immunologists, industry practitioners, and various stakeholders in the mental health field.

Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease E BOOK

1.14) IL-1β and IL-18 Gasdermin Acute Inflammation Pyroptosis (inflammatory Figure 3.13 Inflammasome Activation by Exogenous and Endogenous Stimuli. This figure depicts several inflammasomes in a single cell type for simplification.

Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease E BOOK

Use the veterinarian’s #1 reference on general pathology and the pathology of organ systems! Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 7th Edition helps you understand and diagnose diseases of domestic animals by using the latest scientific and medical research. Focusing on dogs, cats horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs, this reference describes and vividly illustrates and explores the pathogeneses of animal diseases, how cells and tissues respond to injury, and the morphology (lesions) of this injury. New to this edition is basic coverage of tumor, inflammatory, and microbial cytology. Edited by veterinary pathologist James F. Zachary and a team of expert veterinary pathologists, this book includes access to an enhanced eBook with every new print purchase, featuring a fully searchable version of the entire text, an image collection, and much more – and available on a variety of devices. Clear, up-to-date illustrations and explanations of the macroscopic (gross) and microscopic lesions resulting from diseases occurring in domestic animals Complete coverage of both general pathology and the pathology of organ systems that includes the latest research, practice, and diagnostic information on disease mechanisms, pathogenesis, and lesions. Clear explanations of disease mechanisms that describe cell, tissue, and organ system responses to injury and infection. Easy-to-follow organization for each systemic disease chapter including a brief review of the study of diseases that occur in specific tissues, organs, and organ systems, with basic principles related to anatomy, structure, and function, followed by congenital and functional abnormalities and discussions of infectious disease responses, helping students apply principles to veterinary practice. More than 2,100 full-color illustrations featuring color photographs, schematics, flow charts, and diagrammatic representations of disease processes as well as summary tables and boxes, making it easier to understand difficult concepts. Content on cellular and organ system pathology updated throughout the book, with expanded coverage of genetics and disease. Key Readings Index in each chapter with page numbers for key topics. Essential Concept boxes in each General Pathology chapter break down complicated topics that are critical to understanding lesions and pathogeneses. More than 20 recognized experts deliver the most relevant information for the practitioner, student, or individual preparing for the American College of Veterinary Pathologists’ board examination. An enhanced eBook is included with new print purchase, featuring the complete, fully searchable text plus an image collection; the text, tables, and boxes linked to the website that are cited throughout the book; ten new appendices that focus on veterinary diagnostic pathology, postmortem examination, interpretation of lesions, and more; plus an established appendix of photographic techniques used in veterinary diagnostic pathology.

Purinergic Signaling and Inflammation

Amongst the inflammasomes family, NLRP3 inflammasome is the most characterized. Mutations in NLRP3 are associated with several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, particularly a group known as cold-induced auto-inflammatory syndrome ...

Purinergic Signaling and Inflammation


Kidney Inflammation Injury and Regeneration

There is an increasing body of evidence that haem trigger the inflammasome signalling cascade and ultimately, the innate immune response [16,17]. In the present review, we discuss the potential role of inflammasome activation as a ...

Kidney Inflammation  Injury and Regeneration

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still associated with high morbidity and mortality incidence rates, and also bears an elevated risk of subsequent chronic kidney disease. Although the kidney has a remarkable capacity for regeneration after injury and may recover completely depending on the type of renal lesions, the options for clinical intervention are restricted to fluid management and extracorporeal kidney support. The development of novel therapies to prevent AKI, to improve renal regeneration capacity after AKI, and to preserve renal function is urgently needed. The Special Issue covers research articles that investigated the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and injury during different renal pathologies, renal regeneration, diagnostics using new biomarkers, and the effects of different stimuli like medication or bacterial components on isolated renal cells or in vivo models. The Special Issue contains important reviews that consider the current knowledge of cell death and regeneration, inflammation, and the molecular mechanisms of kidney diseases. In addition, the potential of cell-based therapy approaches that use mesenchymal stromal/stem cells or their derivates is summarized. This edition is complemented by reviews that deal with the current data situation on other specific topics like diabetes and diabetic nephropathy or new therapeutic targets.

Excellence in Otolaryngology

Furthermore, inflammasomes in oropharyngeal SCC were not necessarily upregulated in proliferating regions of tumor ... may have unknown antitumor Conclusion In oropharyngeal SCC, inflammasome-associated proteins, including NLRP3, IL-1β, ...

Excellence in Otolaryngology

This volume is dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Department of Otolaryngology of the Sapporo Medical University. It commemorates this landmark event and honors the department’s rich tradition of excellence. Chapters feature results of clinical and basic research conducted at the university. The carefully selected articles – ten clinical reviews, ten original research papers, and one case report – reflect the wide range of specialty fields within the department. Topics covered include otology, allergy and rhinology, oncology, sleep medicine, and tonsils. This book is a comprehensive, inspiring contribution to the celebration of one of the oldest departments within the Sapporo Medical University. It contains valuable information for new and experienced otolaryngologists, neurotologists, allergologists, and head and neck surgeons.

Immunoregulatory Mechanisms of Interferon

Inflammasomes: mechanism of assembly, regulation and signalling. Nat Rev Immunol (2016) 16:407–20. doi:10.1038/nri.2016.58 Latz E, Xiao TS, Stutz A. Activation and regulation of the inflammasomes. Nat Rev Immunol (2013) 13:397–411.

Immunoregulatory Mechanisms of Interferon

Interferons (IFN) belong to the family of cytokines and have been described first in the late 1950s as an inhibitory factor of viral replication. Since then, the impact of interferon has been greatly expanded and its function comprises a role not only in different types of infection, cancer and autoimmunity but importantly also in immunehomeostasis. IFN have important anti-viral effects but it is becoming more and more evident that they are true immunomodulators and have an important impact on the development and maintenance of innate and adaptive immunity.

8th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering iCBBE

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 1. Martinon, F., Burns, K., & Tschopp, J. (2002). “The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of proIL-beta,” Mol Cell, 10(2), 417-426. 2.

8th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering  iCBBE

It is my great pleasure to present the proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (ICBBE 2014), held in Suzhou, China, September 20–22, 2014. I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to all the authors and participants for their support to our conference. The continuous researches on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering are now of critical significance to the sustainable development of science, education, culture and the society. Especially in modern times, it plays an important role in the interdisciplinary field among the life science, mathematical science, computer science and electronic information science. More and more scholars and practitioners, both within China and abroad, are committed themselves to the cause of this area. With the development of society and technology, a great variety of research results are emerging. Here, ICBBE provides a platform for academic professionals and industry players to exchange the most updated information and achievements in those exciting research areas. On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to express my gratitude to our sponsors: Wuhan University and Engineering Information Institute. At the same time, we appreciate the contribution from all the paper reviewers and the committee members. It is impossible to organize such a conference without their help. The papers in the proceedings of ICBBE provide details beyond what is possible to be included in an oral presentation and constitute a concise but timely medium for the dissemination of recent research results. I hope that you can find these proceedings interesting, exciting and informative. Thanks again for your support to the ICBBE conference. Prof. Kuo-Chen Chou ICBBE 2014 Committee Chair

Kelley and Firestein s Textbook of Rheumatology E Book

Mariathasan S, Weiss DS, Newton K, et al: Cryopyrin activates the inflammasome in response to toxins and ATP. Nature 440:228–232, 2006. Munoz-Planillo R, Franchi L, Miller LS, et al: A critical role for hemolysins and bacterial ...

Kelley and Firestein s Textbook of Rheumatology E Book

Consult the definitive resource in rheumatology for an in-depth understanding of scientific advances as they apply to clinical practice. Masterfully edited by Drs. Gary S. Firestein, Ralph C. Budd, Sherine E. Gabriel, Iain B. McInnes, and James R. O'Dell, and authored by internationally renowned scientists and clinicians in the field, Kelley and Firestein’s Textbook of Rheumatology, 10th Edition, delivers the knowledge you need for accurate diagnoses and effective patient care. From basic science, immunology, anatomy, and physiology to diagnostic tests, procedures, and specific disease processes, this state-of-the-art reference provides a global, authoritative perspective on the manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases. An ideal balance of the basic science you need to know and how to apply that information to clinical practice. An integrated chapter format allows you to review basic science advances and their clinical implications in one place and get dependable, evidence-based guidance for the full range of rheumatologic diseases and syndromes. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Metabolic Regulation of Immunity, Principles of Signaling, Research Methods in the Rheumatic Diseases, Novel Intracellular Targeting Agents, and IgG4-Related Diseases. New and expanded chapter topics on small molecule treatment, biologics, biomarkers, epigenetics, biosimilars, and cell-based therapies. More schematic diagrams clearly summarize information and facilitate understanding.

Handbook of Infection and Alzheimer s Disease

Guo H, Callaway JB, Ting JP (2015) Inflammasomes: Mechanisms of action, role in disease, and therapeutics. ... Weng L, Sugimoto N, Liu Y, Zhang Z, Zhong J, Sun B, Liu Y-J (2014) Human NLRP3 inflammasome senses types of bacterial RNAs.

Handbook of Infection and Alzheimer s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the biggest emerging public health problems in the world. Although the last four decades have yielded important insights into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, its cause is still unclear, and if it is not discovered the world will face an unprecedented healthcare problem by the middle of this century. In recent years, evidence of the microbial origin of various chronic inflammatory disorders – including several neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric and other systemic disorders – has been steadily growing. Accumulating new and historic observations are providing evidence of an association between Alzheimer’s disease and certain infectious agents, and may offer new opportunities for ground-breaking healthcare solutions. This handbook assembles and connects findings with regard to the infectious origin of Alzheimer’s disease, and the data presented in its chapters deserves the attention of the neuroscience community, physicians and the health departments of governments worldwide by virtue of its amount and quality. This handbook offers a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding the topic of infection and Alzheimer’s disease, which could pinpoint the cause of this disease. Influential diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies may also emerge from this crucial research area.

Updates on Osteoimmunology What s New on the Crosstalk Between Bone and Immune Cells

(2009) 5:e1000510. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000510 Martinon F, Burns K, Tschopp J. The inflammasome: a molecular platform triggering ... M2039 15200 Strowig T, Henao-Mejia J, Elinav E, Flavell R. Inflammasomes in health and disease.

Updates on Osteoimmunology  What   s New on the Crosstalk Between Bone and Immune Cells


Body Messages

by apoptosis investigators were soon also brought into the circle of inflammasome components, putting together all the pieces. Our current understanding of the process goes something like this: when a cell senses danger, ...

Body Messages

Whether classified as regulators of inflammation, metabolism, or other functions, a distinctive set of molecules enables the body to convey information from one cell to another. Giamila Fantuzzi offers a primer on molecular mediators that coordinate complex bodily processes, and explores the consequences of their discovery for modern medicine.