The Intricacy of Languages

These theoretical reflections lead us to propose the topic of The Complexity of Languages for the 10th colloquium on Problems and Methods of Language History We invite discussion of the following questions (among others): 1.

The Intricacy of Languages

If, as we believe, the history of languages is the history of the construction of an ideal artefact that permits a specific interpretation of the linguistic reality and helps to approve and assimilate a certain zone of diversity, enabling the accumulation of collective historical knowledge and making us identify it with a social community and a territory, then it must be agreed that languages are extremely complex entities. The new linguistic diversity that cultural globalisation and recent population movements have installed in most traditional linguistic territories has probably put the ideology of the national language into a state of crisis and, as a consequence, has made the ancient, intrinsic diversity of all languages visible, at least to the extent that this is still possible. Nowadays, then, the old linguistic diversity of dialects, of parlances, of local lexicons and the cultural forms that are reflected in these, of varieties and previously unsuccessful linguistic entities has been given a new opportunity in a world where the cohesion of societies and the welfare of citizens must be guaranteed using all available means. Looked at this way, the intricacy of languages may even open up an opportunity for local economic and social development.

The Intricacy of Languages

The linguistic diversity that cultural globalisation and population movements have installed in most traditional linguistic territories has put the ideology of the national language into a state of crisis and, as a consequence, has made the ...

The Intricacy of Languages

If, as we believe, the history of languages is the history of the construction of an ideal artefact that permits a specific interpretation of the linguistic reality and helps to approve and assimilate a certain zone of diversity, enabling the accumulation of collective historical knowledge and making us identify it with a social community and a territory, then it must be agreed that languages are extremely complex entities. The new linguistic diversity that cultural globalisation and recent population movements have installed in most traditional linguistic territories has probably put the ideology of the national language into a state of crisis and, as a consequence, has made the ancient, intrinsic diversity of all languages visible, at least to the extent that this is still possible. Nowadays, then, the old linguistic diversity of dialects, of parlances, of local lexicons and the cultural forms that are reflected in these, of varieties and previously unsuccessful linguistic entities has been given a new opportunity in a world where the cohesion of societies and the welfare of citizens must be guaranteed using all available means. Looked at this way, the intricacy of languages may even open up an opportunity for local economic and social development.

On Diversity and Complexity of Languages Spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia

His article is a part of a larger project that compares non-past copular markers across different Turkic languages. Taken together with Csató's work, a fascinating overview of the intricacies of the semantic and morphosyntax of copula ...

On Diversity and Complexity of Languages Spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia

The languages of Europe and North and Central Asia provide a rich variety of data. In this volume, some articles are summaries of large areal typological research projects, and some articles focus on structures or constructions in a single language. However, it is common to all the articles that they investigate phenomena that have not been examined previously, or they apply a new framework to a topic. The volume will be of interest to scholars with a focus on this broad geographic region, typologists, historical linguists and discourse analysts. The uniqueness of this volume is that it brings together work on a genetically diverse set of languages that have some shared areal traits.

Complexity in Language

The most frequent initial confusion is the use of the term complexity to refer not to a given scientific approach, ... In layman's language, complexity or complex is customarily used to signify complication, confusion, intricacy, ...

Complexity in Language

This book is about dynamical, social-interactional aspects of the emergence of complexity in language, explained by linguists, cognitivists, and modelers.

Language Complexity

Structural elaboration is about the “ number of rules mediating underlying forms and surface forms , such as morphophonemics ” , the global complexity of a language increasing with the number of rules in its grammar .

Language Complexity

Language complexity has recently attracted considerable attention from linguists of many different persuasions. This volume – a thematic selection of papers from the conference Approaches to Complexity in Language, held in Helsinki, August 2005 – is the first collection of articles devoted to the topic. The sixteen chapters of the volume approach the notion of language complexity from a variety of perspectives. The papers are divided into three thematic sections that reflect the central themes of the book: Typology and theory, Contact and change, Creoles and pidgins. The book is mainly intended for typologists, historical linguists, contact linguists and creolists, as well as all linguists interested in language complexity in general. As the first collective volume on a very topical theme, the book is expected to be of lasting interest to the linguistic community.

The Formal Complexity of Natural Language

Footnotes 1 This is only one narrow point of view which ignores many aspects of language, including, among other things, the meanings associated with the ... 6 The Chomsky hierarchy is a means of classifying the complexity of languages.

The Formal Complexity of Natural Language

Ever since Chomsky laid the framework for a mathematically formal theory of syntax, two classes of formal models have held wide appeal. The finite state model offered simplicity. At the opposite extreme numerous very powerful models, most notable transformational grammar, offered generality. As soon as this mathematical framework was laid, devastating arguments were given by Chomsky and others indicating that the finite state model was woefully inadequate for the syntax of natural language. In response, the completely general transformational grammar model was advanced as a suitable vehicle for capturing the description of natural language syntax. While transformational grammar seems likely to be adequate to the task, many researchers have advanced the argument that it is "too adequate. " A now classic result of Peters and Ritchie shows that the model of transformational grammar given in Chomsky's Aspects [IJ is powerful indeed. So powerful as to allow it to describe any recursively enumerable set. In other words it can describe the syntax of any language that is describable by any algorithmic process whatsoever. This situation led many researchers to reasses the claim that natural languages are included in the class of transformational grammar languages. The conclu sion that many reached is that the claim is void of content, since, in their view, it says little more than that natural language syntax is doable algo rithmically and, in the framework of modern linguistics, psychology or neuroscience, that is axiomatic.

Research Design and Evaluation in Speech language Pathology and Audiology

The scale is one of equal intervals — from 1 to 7 — with 1 representing least intricacy of language usage and 7 representing most intricacy ; 4 represents the midpoint 4 between 1 and 7 with respect to intricacy , with the other numbers ...

Research Design and Evaluation in Speech language Pathology and Audiology

KEY BENEFIT: Almost all of the 60,000+ speech-language pathologists and audiologists in the United States now have to be able to document convincingly the positive impact of intervention on their clients if they are to be competitive for "third-party" funding. Most are not familiar with the research methodologies needed to do it in a way that funding agencies are highly likely to regard as being scientific, objective, competent and valid. This book focuses on conducting and consuming clinical research. By not assuming any prior knowledge of statistics, this book teaches how to interpret and critically evaluate the data analyses and conclusions of studies in which statistics are used. It also summarizes the legal and ethical aspects of clinical research. Additionally, the widespread availability of software for computing statistics by issuing a command or two has resulted in a shift in emphasis from knowing how to compute statistics to knowing when to use the various statistics and how to appropriately interpret them. This book reflects this change in emphasis. Written as a professional book for speech-language pathologists and audiologists, it will enable them to document the impacts of intervention on their clients in ways that medical insurance programs and public school administrators are likely to regard as being both "scientific" and valid.

Linguistic Complexity

The present volume endeavors to summarize a workshop held at the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS) in May 2009 about “Linguistic complexity in interlanguage varieties, L2 varieties, and contact languages”.

Linguistic Complexity

Linguistic complexity is one of the currently most hotly debated notions in linguistics. The essays in this volume reflect the intricacies of thinking about the complexity of languages and language varieties (here: of English) in three major contact-related fields of (and schools in) linguistics: creolistics, indigenization and nativization studies (i.e. in the realm of English linguistics, the “World Englishes” community), and Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research: How can we adequately assess linguistic complexity? Should we be interested in absolute complexity or rather relative complexity? What is the extent to which language contact and/or (adult) language learning might lead to morphosyntactic simplification? The authors in this volume are all leading linguists in different areas of specialization, and they were asked to elaborate on those facets of linguistic complexity which are most relevant in their area of specialization, and/or which strike them as being most intriguing. The result is a collection of papers that is unique in bringing together leading representatives of three often disjunct fields of linguistic scholarship in which linguistic complexity is seen as a dynamic and inherently variable parameter.

Convergence English and Nigerian Languages

Pinker (1994) describes Chomsky as 'the linguist who first unmasked the intricacy of the system (language as an instinct) and perhaps the person most responsible for the modern revolution in language and cognitive science'.

Convergence  English and Nigerian Languages

The present volume, which is the 5th in the Nigerian Linguists Festschrift Series, is devoted to Professor Munzali A. Jibril, a celebrated icon in university administration, and an erudite Professor of English Linguistics. The title of this special edition was specifically chosen to crown Professor Jibril’s academic prowess in both English and indigenous Nigerian languages, and to mark and laud his official departure from active university lectureship. 72 assessed papers are included from the many submitted. Papers cover the main theme of the volume, i.e. the interaction between English and indigenous Nigerian languages, and there are a number of papers on other secular areas of linguistics such as: language and history, language planning and policy, language documentation, language engineering, lexicography, translation, gender studies, language acquisition, language teaching and learning, pragmatics, discourse and conversational analysis, and literature in English and African languages. There is also a rich section devoted to the major ‘traditional’ fields of linguistics - phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics.

Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education

A comparison of grammar, sentence structure, and word usage of two distinct languages and the inherent complexities of the cognitive process has found that bilinguals have a greater understanding of the intricacy of language.

Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education

"With articles on Spanglish and Spanish loan words in English as well as Southeast Asian refugees and World Englishes, this encyclopedia has a broad scope that will make it useful in academic and large public libraries serving those involved in teaching and learning in multiple languages. Also available as an ebook." — Booklist The simplest definition of bilingual education is the use of two languages in the teaching of curriculum content in K–12 schools. There is an important difference to keep in mind between bilingual education and the study of foreign languages as school subjects: In bilingual education, two languages are used for instruction, and the goal is academic success in and through the two languages. The traditional model of foreign-language study places the emphasis on the acquisition of the languages themselves. The field of bilingual education is dynamic and even controversial. The two volumes of this comprehensive, first-stop reference work collect and synthesize the knowledge base that has been well researched and accepted in the United States and abroad while also taking note of how this topic affects schools, research centers, legislative bodies, advocacy organizations, and families. The Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education is embedded in several disciplines, including applied linguistics, politics, civil rights, historical events, and of course, classroom instruction. This work is a compendium of information on bilingual education and related topics in the United States with select international contributors providing global insight onto the field. Key Features Explores in a comprehensive, non-technical way the intricacies of this subject from multiple perspectives: its history, policy, classroom practice, instructional design, and research bases Shows connections between bilingual education and related subjects, such as linguistics, education equity issues, socio-cultural diversity, and the nature of demographic change in the United States Documents the history of bilingual education in the last half of the 20th century and summarizes its roots in earlier periods Discusses important legislation and litigation documents Key Themes · Family, Community, and Society · History · Instructional Design · Languages and Linguistics · People and Organizations · Policy Evolution · Social Science Perspectives · Teaching and Learning The Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education is a valuable resource for those who wish to understand the polemics associated with this field as well as its technical details. This will be an excellent addition to any academic library.

History of Programming Languages

Disturbed by the intricacy of programming in assembly language and despairing of ever teaching it to our students and colleagues, John Kemeny devised DARSIMCO (DARtmouth SIMplified COde). In it, the common arithmetic operations were ...

History of Programming Languages

History of Programming Languages presents information pertinent to the technical aspects of the language design and creation. This book provides an understanding of the processes of language design as related to the environment in which languages are developed and the knowledge base available to the originators. Organized into 14 sections encompassing 77 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the programming techniques to use to help the system produce efficient programs. This text then discusses how to use parentheses to help the system identify identical subexpressions within an expression and thereby eliminate their duplicate calculation. Other chapters consider FORTRAN programming techniques needed to produce optimum object programs. This book discusses as well the developments leading to ALGOL 60. The final chapter presents the biography of Adin D. Falkoff. This book is a valuable resource for graduate students, practitioners, historians, statisticians, mathematicians, programmers, as well as computer scientists and specialists.

Space and Time in Languages and Cultures

Other factors such as the semantics of grammaticalised forms and the dynamic nature of events may also affect conceptualization of the progression of events, thus indicating the complexity and intricacy of how language may aflect ...

Space and Time in Languages and Cultures

This volume offers novel insights into linguistic diversity in the domains of spatial and temporal reference, searching for uniformity amongst diversity. A number of authors discuss expression of dynamic spatial relations cross-linguistically in a vast range of typologically different languages such as Bezhta, French, Hinuq, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Serbian, and Spanish, among others. The contributions on linguistic expression of time all shed new light on pertinent questions regarding this cognitive domain, such as the hotly debated relationship between cross-linguistic differences in talking about time and universal principles of utterance interpretation, modelling temporal inference through aspectual interactions, as well as the complexity of the acquisition of tense-aspect relations in a second language. The topic of space and time in language and culture is also represented, from a different point of view, in the sister volume Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, culture, and cognition (HCP 37) which discusses spatial and temporal constructs in human language, cognition, and culture in order to come closer to a better understanding of the interaction between shared and individual characteristics of language and culture that shape the way people interact with each other and exchange information about the spatio-temporal constructs that underlie their cognitive, social, and linguistic foundations.

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language

INTRAFOLIACEOUS 637 INTRINSIC intricacies . line or curve of an arch . The exterior or intra , and tropical ] Situated within the cause in controversy , the intricacy of a upper curve is called the extrados . See tropics ; pertaining to ...

The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language


Developing Advanced Literacy in First and Second Languages

As we can see, Rosa moves from a grammatical intricacy of 1.75 in her early essay to a less intricate 1.52 in her later one. She moves from a lexical density of43.1% to 50.5% in her last essay. The com plexity of written language is ...

Developing Advanced Literacy in First and Second Languages

This book addresses the linguistic challenges faced by diverse populations of students at the secondary and post-secondary levels as they engage in academic tasks requiring advanced levels of reading and writing. Learning to use language in ways that meet academic expectations is a challenge for students who have had little exposure and opportunity to use such language outside of school. Although much is known about emergent literacy in the early years of schooling, much less has been written about the development of advanced literacy as students move into secondary education and beyond. Developing Advanced Literacy in First and Second Languages: Meaning With Power: *brings together work on first and second language acquisition and emphasizes the importance of developing advanced literacy in the first language, such as Spanish for bilingual students, as well as English; *spans a range of theoretical orientations and analytic approaches, drawing on work in systemic functional linguistics, genre theory, and sociocultural perspectives; *addresses the content areas of science, history, and language arts; *provides specific information about genres and grammatical features in these content areas; and *presents suggestions for teacher education. What unites the contributors to this volume is their shared commitment to a view of literacy that emphasizes both the social contexts and the linguistic challenges. The chapters collected in this volume contribute in important ways to research and pedagogy on advanced literacy development for the multilingual and multicultural students in today's classrooms. This book is particularly useful for researchers and students in language and education, applied linguistics, and others concerned with issues and challenges of advanced literacy development in first and second languages.

Cultural Diversity in Cross Cultural Settings

Englishscapes Figure 2: Languagescapes as the totality of mothertonguescapes and Englishscapes However, due to the intricacy of languages, it is not possible to draw a line in the “language here” and “language home” or the ...

Cultural Diversity in Cross Cultural Settings

The 21st century is marked by the intensive movement of people across international borders. While languages are used as a means of interaction across the globe, the nuances of communication vary from culture to culture. This book explores how the misperception of cultural values and norms may result in misapprehension and communication breakdowns in various settings.

Proto Phenomenology Language Acquisition Orality and Literacy

Ironically, despite the regulating effects of “lexiconic” documents, a good dictionary provides a rich indication of the complexity and plasticity of language, if one reads comprehensively. A single word entry can display a wide array ...

Proto Phenomenology  Language Acquisition  Orality and Literacy

Through his innovative study of language, noted Heidegger scholar Lawrence Hatab offers a proto-phenomenological account of the lived world, the “first” world of factical life, where pre-reflective, immediate disclosiveness precedes and makes possible representational models of language. Common distinctions between mind and world, fact and value, cognition and affect miss the meaning-laden dimension of embodied, practical existence, where language and life are a matter of “dwelling in speech.” In this second volume, Hatab supplements and fortifies his initial analysis by offering a detailed treatment of child development and language acquisition, which exhibit a proto-phenomenological world in the making. He then takes up an in-depth study of the differences between oral and written language (particularly in the ancient Greek world) and how the history of alphabetic literacy shows why Western philosophy came to emphasize objective, representational models of cognition and language, which conceal and pass over the presentational domain of dwelling in speech. Such a study offers significant new angles on the nature of philosophy and language.

Children s Language

More lasting disruptions in language acquisition and performance illustrate the complexity of the process. Youngsters with dyslexia and other specific learning disorders that affect the ability to manipulate written and mathematical ...

Children s Language

First published in 1983. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Bloomsbury Companion to Systemic Functional Linguistics

of the language. Clearly in some sense, at least, using items of very low frequency increases the complexity of the text. But this factor has not yet been incorporated into lexical density studies. 4.3 Complexity in lexicogrammar (2): ...

Bloomsbury Companion to Systemic Functional Linguistics

Designed to be the essential one-volume resource for students and researchers on Systemic Functional Linguistics.

The Handbook of Language Emergence

This means that emergentism must look elsewhere to understand why languages permit certain patterns and not others. ... an explanatory account of anaphora, a phenomenon whose intricacy and complexity make it an instructive case study.

The Handbook of Language Emergence


Cognitive Developments in Economics

In particular, Smith argues that any given language goes through a stage of increasing complexity (both in grammar and syntax) as long as language transformation takes place in a setting characterised by social homogeneity.

Cognitive Developments in Economics

Cognitive Developments in Economics proposes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of human problem solving, choice, decision-making and change, to explain economic transactions, and the nature and evolution of organisations and institutions. The book contributes to a large spectrum of economic fields such as consumer theory, economics of the firm, economics of innovation, evolutionary economics and experimental economics.