The Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo

Similar problems with in vitro embryo development are encountered in other species. Pig embryos can be grown up to the 4-cell stage in vitro but usually no further (Davis and Day, 1978).

The Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo

With a few notable exceptions, mammalian preimplantation embryos grown in vitro are likely to exhibit sub-optimal or retarded development. This may be manifested in different ways, depending on the species and on the stage(s) of embryonic development that are being examined. For example, bovine embryos often experience difficulty in cleaving under in vitro conditions, and usually cease development at about the 8-cell stage (Wright and Bondioli, 1981). The block to development is stage-dependent; embryos cultured for 24 hr from the I-cell stage are much more capable of developing into viable blastocysts after transfer to oviducts than embryos cultured for 24 hr from the 4-cell stage prior to transfer (Eyestone et oZ. , 1985). Similar problems with in vitro embryo development are encountered in other species. Pig embryos can be grown up to the 4-cell stage in vitro but usually no further (Davis and Day, 1978). In the golden hamster, in the rat and in many outbred strains of mice, development of zygotes in vitro is blocked at the 2-cell stage (Yanagimachi and Chang, 1964; Whittingham, 1975). Even with some inbred mouse strains, embryo development is reduced if very early cleavage stages are used as the starting point for in vitro culture (Spielmann et oZ. , 1980). A common finding is that embryos grown in vitro have reduced cell counts (Harlow and Quinn, 1982; Kane, 1985) and their viability is reduced (Bowman and McLaren, 1970; Papaioannou and Ebert, 1986) compared to equivalent developmental stages recovered from mated animals.

Mammalian Preimplantation Development

Mammalian Preimplantation Development, the latest volume in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series covers mammalian preimplantation development, and includes contributions from an international board of authors.

Mammalian Preimplantation Development

Mammalian Preimplantation Development, the latest volume in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series covers mammalian preimplantation development, and includes contributions from an international board of authors. The book's chapters provide a comprehensive set of reviews covering such topics as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and biological significance. Covers the area of mammalian preimplantation development Includes contributions from an International board of authors Provides a comprehensive set of reviews covering such topics as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and biological significance

A Laboratory Guide to the Mammalian Embryo

This book will appeal to a broad range of researchers, from basic experimental scientists to clinical and animal scientists.

A Laboratory Guide to the Mammalian Embryo

Never before has there been such a comprehensive book of protocols. This compendium offers a full range of research techniques-from cell culture, to biochemical, to microscopic and genetic. More focused books, like Cold Spring Harbor's Manipulating the Mouse Embryo, are similar though more narrow in scope. This book will appeal to a broad range of researchers, from basic experimental scientists to clinical and animal scientists.

Cell Signaling During Mammalian Early Embryo Development

This volume is the first to address this issue by describing the current state of knowledge on cell signaling during mammalian early embryo development and highlighting priority areas for research.

Cell Signaling During Mammalian Early Embryo Development

The book considers signaling events from the zygote embryo through to the blastocyst with relevant data from embryonic stem (ES) cells, including dialogue with the extracellular environment and with the maternal tract during the implantation process. Application of the knowledge described to improve the success of human and animal assisted conception is considered where appropriate, but the focus is largely on fundamental rather than applied cell/molecular biology, as this is the area that has historically been neglected. While the general features of metabolism during preimplantation development are well established, especially in terms of nutrient requirements, uptake and fate, remarkably little is known about early embryo signaling events, intracellular or intercellular, between individual embryos in vitro or with the female reproductive tract in vivo. This contrasts with the wealth of information on cell signaling in somatic cells and tissues, as a glance at any textbook of biochemistry illustrates. This lack of information is such that our understanding of the molecular cell biology of early embryos -- a prerequisite to defining the mechanisms which regulate development at this critical stage of the life cycle -- is seriously incomplete. This volume is the first to address this issue by describing the current state of knowledge on cell signaling during mammalian early embryo development and highlighting priority areas for research.

Assessment of Mammalian Embryo Quality

The central theme of the book is "the assessment of mammalian embryo quality". In 15 chapters, written by well-known scientists, different aspects of the assessment of mammalian embryo quality are summarized.

Assessment of Mammalian Embryo Quality

Thanks to enormous scientific efforts of the last decades, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro production (IVP) have now been introduced successfully in the practice of human infertility treatment and cattle breeding programs. This comprehensive book allows us to bridge the knowledge from both biomedical and veterinary fields of research. For the first time, studies concerning the human embryo as well as embryos from domestic species are brought together. The central theme of the book is "the assessment of mammalian embryo quality". In 15 chapters, written by well-known scientists, different aspects of the assessment of mammalian embryo quality are summarized. Non-invasive and invasive techniques to evaluate embryo quality are separated in two parts. In addition the book is provided with appendices on practical aspects and, thus, the book should be present in each laboratory for IVF and IVP.

Preimplantation Embryo Development

This volume contains the Proceedings of the Serono Symposium on Pre implantation Embryo Development, held in Newton, Massachusetts, in 1991.

Preimplantation Embryo Development

This volume contains the Proceedings of the Serono Symposium on Pre implantation Embryo Development, held in Newton, Massachusetts, in 1991. The idea for the symposium grew out of the 1989 Serono Symposium on Fertilization in Mammals* at which preimplantation development was the predominant suggestion for a follow-up topic. This was indeed a timely subject in view of the recent resurgence of interest in this funda mental phase of embryogenesis and its relevance to basic research and applied fertility studies in humans, food-producing animals, and endangered species. The symposium brought together speakers from a broad range of disciplines in order to focus on key regulatory mechanisms in embryo development, using a wide variety of animal models, and on representative topics in human preimplantation embryogenesis. The culmination of preimplantation development is a blastocyst con taining the first differentiated embryonic tissues and capable of initiating and sustaining pregnancy. The central objective of the symposium was to throw light on the regulation of cellular and molecular events underlying blastocyst formation. It was particularly appropriate that the date of the symposium marked the 20th anniversary of the publication of the classic volume Biology of the Blastocyst, the proceedings of an international workshop held in 1970. This book, which summarized most of the information then available on this topic in mammals, was edited by the pioneer in blastocyst research, Dr. Richard B1andau, who was the guest speaker at the symposium.

Cell Fate in Mammalian Development

Cell Fate in Mammalian Development, Volume 128, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series, provides reviews on cell fate in mammalian development.

Cell Fate in Mammalian Development

Cell Fate in Mammalian Development, Volume 128, the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series, provides reviews on cell fate in mammalian development. Each chapter is written by an international board of authors, with this release including sections on the Specification of extra-embryonic lineages during mouse pre-implantation development, Cell polarity and fate specification, The circuitry that drives trophectoderm identity, Breaking symmetry and the dynamics of transcription factors directing cell fate specification, Mechanics and cell fate, How physical properties of cells change in development and their effect on cell fate decisions, and more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Includes new sections on the specification of extra-embryonic lineages during mouse pre-implantation development, cell polarity and fate specification, the circuitry that drives trophectoderm identity, and more Presents the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series

The Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo

nutritional influences on reproductive function in mammals have been undertaken, comprehensive studies of early embryonic development, i.e., intrinsic factors, have lagged behind for lack of applicable methodologies.

The Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo

With a few notable exceptions, mammalian preimplantation embryos grown in vitro are likely to exhibit sub-optimal or retarded development. This may be manifested in different ways, depending on the species and on the stage(s) of embryonic development that are being examined. For example, bovine embryos often experience difficulty in cleaving under in vitro conditions, and usually cease development at about the 8-cell stage (Wright and Bondioli, 1981). The block to development is stage-dependent; embryos cultured for 24 hr from the I-cell stage are much more capable of developing into viable blastocysts after transfer to oviducts than embryos cultured for 24 hr from the 4-cell stage prior to transfer (Eyestone et oZ. , 1985). Similar problems with in vitro embryo development are encountered in other species. Pig embryos can be grown up to the 4-cell stage in vitro but usually no further (Davis and Day, 1978). In the golden hamster, in the rat and in many outbred strains of mice, development of zygotes in vitro is blocked at the 2-cell stage (Yanagimachi and Chang, 1964; Whittingham, 1975). Even with some inbred mouse strains, embryo development is reduced if very early cleavage stages are used as the starting point for in vitro culture (Spielmann et oZ. , 1980). A common finding is that embryos grown in vitro have reduced cell counts (Harlow and Quinn, 1982; Kane, 1985) and their viability is reduced (Bowman and McLaren, 1970; Papaioannou and Ebert, 1986) compared to equivalent developmental stages recovered from mated animals.

Chromatin Regulation of Early Embryonic Lineage Specification

Five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life.

Chromatin Regulation of Early Embryonic Lineage Specification

Five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life. The first cell-fate decision involves the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and extraembryonic trophectoderm (TE). The second cell-fate choice encompasses the transformation of ICM into extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PE) and pluripotent epiblast. The processes, which occur during the period of preimplantation development, serve as the foundation for subsequent developmental events such as implantation, placentation, and gastrulation. The mechanisms that regulate them are complex and involve many different factors operating spatially and temporally over several days to modulate embryonic chromatin structure, impose cellular polarity, and direct distinct gene expression programs in the first cell lineages.

Improving Developmental Competence of Murine Preimplantation Embryos by Supplementation of Anti apoptotic Peptides

Mammalian preimplantation embryo development is prone to high rates of early embryo demise.

Improving Developmental Competence of Murine Preimplantation Embryos by Supplementation of Anti apoptotic Peptides

Mammalian preimplantation embryo development is prone to high rates of early embryo demise. Two underlying causes for failed development include the effect of sub-optimal culture media and maternal lethal effect (MLE) genes. In line with the growing evidence, we hypothesize that embryo fate is determined by the outcome of specific intracellular interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins under suboptimal culture conditions such as HTF medium and oxidative stress. Characterization of Nalp5, a MLE gene resulting in 2-cell embryo arrest, also found a significantly higher expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in knockout oocytes and embryos. With the use of two anti-apoptotic peptides, TAT-BH4 and Bax-inhibiting peptide (BIP), we attempted to improve embryo development. Our results found that neither peptide was able to improve embryo development in the Nalp5 model, or the HTF model. However, TAT-BH4 is capable of significantly improving developmental competence in embryos cultured under oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that supplementation of TAT-BH4 in embryo culture medium may offer a novel and cost-effective technique to improve embryogenesis of cultured embryos. However, further studies are still required.

Metabolic Regulation of Preimplantation Mouse Embryo Development

In Chapter 2, we made the novel and surprising finding that a number of enzymatically active mitochondrial enzymes associated with the TCA cycle are transiently localized to the nucleus where they directly make the metabolites that are ...

Metabolic Regulation of Preimplantation Mouse Embryo Development

Preimplantation mammalian embryo is a critical stage in embryonic development, during which the totipotent zygote goes through zygotic genome activation (ZGA) at 2-cell stage, and then generates the first two cell lineages, trophectodem (TE), the inner cell mass (ICM) at the blastocyst stage. The nutritional requirements of the preimplantation embryo are minimal and are largely derived from the oviductal fluid in which it floats. An in vitro culture medium with only pyruvate, lactate, and glucose as nutrients, but lacking any amino acids, fats or proteins supports normal development through the 4.5 days of preimplantation stages. Extensive studies in the past have shown that lack of these metabolites during culture result in specific developmental phenotypes. Zygote cultured in the medium lacking pyruvate is viable but fails to develop beyond the 2-cell stage. Lack of glucose in the culture medium blocks preimplantation development at the morula stage. The mechanism by which specific nutrients control different developmental processes is still unclear. In this thesis, I interrogated the roles of pyruvate and glucose during mammalian embryogenesis. We found pyruvate mediated O-glycosylation and mitochondrial enzymes nuclear localization are critical steps in mammalian ZGA at 2-cell stage (Chapter 2), while glucose metabolism distinguishes TE from ICM fate at 8- to 16-cell stages (Chapter 3). In Chapter 2, we made the novel and surprising finding that a number of enzymatically active mitochondrial enzymes associated with the TCA cycle are transiently localized to the nucleus where they directly make the metabolites that are essential for ZGA and the associated global genome organization. We also found that pyruvate, O-glycosylation, and chaperones are essential for this nuclear localization. In Chapter 3, we found that at morula stage critical pathways of glucose catabolism are the pentose pathway (PPP) and the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) and blocking these pathways recapitulate distinct aspects of the glucose phenotype. Analysis of the roles of the PPP and the HBP further showed that these pathways have non-over lapping roles in the regulation of specific transcription factors that are essential for the establishment of the TE fate.

Methods in Mammalian Reproduction

This book will be helpful to students, teachers, researchers, and clinical researchers who demand for more and better procedures for analysis of mammalian reproduction.

Methods in Mammalian Reproduction

Methods in Mammalian Reproduction presents some of the techniques for manipulating, analyzing, observing, testing, and generally experimenting with mammalian mothers and their gametes and embryos. Mammalian reproduction involves an intimate relationship between mother and embryo. The first 18 chapters are arranged in an order that follows a developmental sequence from oocyte to fetal organs and the remaining seven chapters deal with the maternal side of the relationship. With strong focus on laboratory rodents and lagomorphs, the book starts with an introduction to in vitro oocyte maturation and experimental production of mammalian parthenogenetic. It goes on to describe the microtechniques in pre-implantation of embryos, production of chimeras, techniques for early embryonic tissue separation, mammalian embryo preservation by freezing, and in vitro development of whole mouse embryos beyond the implantation stage. Chapters 11-15 discuss the in vitro implantation of mouse blastocysts, advances in rabbit embryo and in large mammal embryo cultures, embryo transfer in large domestic mammals, and manipulation of marsupial embryos and pouch young. The following chapters cover reproduction experiments using marsupials, domestic farm species, and primates including humans. Finally, the concluding chapters tackle the use of amniocentesis in prenatal diagnosis, collection and analysis of female genital tract secretions, analysis of antifertility action of intrauterine devices, and surgical induction of endometriosis. This book will be helpful to students, teachers, researchers, and clinical researchers who demand for more and better procedures for analysis of mammalian reproduction.

Examining the State of the Science of Mammalian Embryo Model Systems

Presentations provided an overview of the current state of the science of in vitro development of human trophoblast. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

Examining the State of the Science of Mammalian Embryo Model Systems

Because of the recent advances in embryo modeling techniques, and at the request of the Office of Science Policy in the Office of the Director at the National Institutes of Health, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, hosted a 1-day public workshop that would explore the state of the science of mammalian embryo model systems. The workshop, which took place on January 17, 2020, featured a combination of presentations, panels, and general discussions, during which panelists and participants offered a broad range of perspectives. Participants considered whether embryo model systems - especially those that use nonhuman primate cells - can be used to predict the function of systems made with human cells. Presentations provided an overview of the current state of the science of in vitro development of human trophoblast. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

Biological Resource Management in Agriculture Mammalian Embryo Genomics

This book contains the proceedings of the first International Meeting on Mammalian Embryo Genomics, held in Quebec City, Canada, on July 20, 2002, which brought together a group of internationally recognised scientists in the genomics field ...

Biological Resource Management in Agriculture Mammalian Embryo Genomics

This book contains the proceedings of the first International Meeting on Mammalian Embryo Genomics, held in Quebec City, Canada, on July 20, 2002, which brought together a group of internationally recognised scientists in the genomics field. The objective was to coordinate activities in the field.