The Metachromatic Reaction

Not until 1955 was the conspicuous metachromatic component of cartilage directly identified with chondroitin sulfate ... They were the first to suggest that there might be a metachromatic reaction of acidic dyes with cationic colloids.

The Metachromatic Reaction


Organization of the Extracellular Matrix

46,47 The term metachromasia is used to describe a change in color of a dye after interaction with a chromotrope being ... These are two events which simultaneously occur during a metachromatic reaction : ( 1 ) a dye - chromotrope ...

Organization of the Extracellular Matrix

This book describes analysis techniques and results of topics such as physical backgrounds, chemical backgrounds, and principal methods of topo-optical reactions used in ultrastructure research of the ECM; orientation patterns of GAGs and collagen in different tissues/cartilage, cornea, kidney basement membranes, and skin; factors involved in the formation of submicroscopically ordered matrix structure; and cell-matrix interactions, including cytoskeleton-cell-membrane-matrix relationships. A summarization of the advantages and limitations of polarization microscopy compared to electron microscopy in ultracellular research is also included. Cell biologists, histologists, pathologists, and biochemists in connective tissue research will find this book to be an invaluable reference tool.

International Review of Cytology

This substance when isolated gives a strong metachromatic reaction. Ebel (1951) confirmed this result and noted that the granules in Corynebacterium diptheriae seem to be constituted with polymetaphosphates. The polyphosphates can be ...

International Review of Cytology

International Review of Cytology

Distribution and Biological Role

metachromatic and a mucicarmine-positive staining reaction. For references, the readers are referred to the literature (Ribbert, 1914; Letterer, 1932; Grishman, 1952) and textbooks on oncology. It may be supposed that these tumor ...

Distribution and Biological Role

The Amino Sugars: The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars, Volume IIA: Distribution and Biological Role focuses on the chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry of naturally occurring and synthetically prepared amino sugars and amino sugar-containing molecules, as well as the biological and medical importance of these molecules. The selection first offers information on the distribution of amino sugars in microorganisms, plants, and invertebrates and amino sugars and macromolecules containing amino sugars in liver. Discussions focus on microorganisms, invertebrates, amino sugar composition, catabolism of amino sugars, and metabolic interrelationships between amino sugars and other sugars. The text then takes a look at amino sugars and macromolecules containing amino sugars in kidney and amino sugar-containing compounds in urine. The publication takes a look at glycoproteins in salivary glands, saliva, and sputum; glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in skin; and amino sugar-containing compounds in tumors. The text also evaluates glycosaminoglycans in umbilical cord and glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins in synovial fluid. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in the study of amino sugars.

Histochemical and Cytochemical Methods of Visualization

2.1.3.2.3 Important Factors Tissue reaction depends upon negative charges (or positive in certain cases) that are present on the chromotrope. To obtain a metachromatic reaction, the tissue charges must be relatively dense (0.5 nm apart) ...

Histochemical and Cytochemical Methods of Visualization

Histochemistry and cytochemistry are important fields for studying the inner workings of cells and tissues of the body. While visualization techniques have been in use for many years, new methods of detection developed recently help researchers and practitioners better understand cell activity. Histochemical and Cytochemical Methods of Visualizatio

Genome Visualization by Classic Methods in Light Microscopy

1.2.2.3.3 IMPORTANT FACTORS Tissue reaction depends upon negative charges (or positive in certain cases) that are present on the chromotrope. To obtain a metachromatic reaction, the tissue charges must be relatively dense (0.5 nm apart) ...

Genome Visualization by Classic Methods in Light Microscopy

Visualization of nucleic acids has become indispensable to studying cells, tissues, and organisms. Certain techniques even permit quantification of DNA and/or RNA distribution in tissues, but few current analytical books cover the numerous methods for DNA and RNA visualization. This book provides insight into several classic techniques, histological as well as histochemical, that can be used to appreciate the nucleic acid status of the cell as well as to provide an overview of RNA and DNA distribution in cells and tissues. Genome Visualization by Classic Methods in Light Microscopy begins with an introduction to DNA and RNA, followed by general visualization principles. The subsequent chapters describe: how to prepare tissues for staining; the principles, chemical formulas, and procedures for nuclear dye, fluorescent dye, and histochemical methods; directions to observe the products of the stained reactions; and more. Each protocol is presented as easy-to-follow directions and the author includes cautionary notes and points to consider. The final section provides color photographs of various tissues in which the staining method, fixative, and observations are noted. A theoretical and practical book, Genome Visualization by Classic Methods in Light Microscopy allows you to understand which technique is most useful for your particular problem. Laboratory protocols are provided for you to follow, chemical structures and principles are provided for you to understand the technique, and the book is organized so you can find the necessary information when needed. This is the essential guide to understanding and executing visualization techniques for nucleic acids.

The Inflammatory Process

An important contribution to the clarification of the metachromatic staining reaction was that of Lison (1935). From his studies he concluded that metachromasia was a specific, chemical reaction provided only by sulfuric acid esters of ...

The Inflammatory Process

The Inflammatory Process focuses on the approaches, methodologies, and technologies involved in the study of the inflammatory process, including capillary structure, tissue injury, and inflammatory response. The selection first offers information on the experimental approach to inflammation, ultrastructural and biochemical consequences of cell injury, and ultrastructural basis of capillary permeability. Discussions focus on permeability of capillaries, cytoplasm, nucleus, gross pathology of inflammation, light microscope and the study of inflammation, and the physiologic approach to problems of inflammation. The text then elaborates on the microvascular aspects of tissue injury and the sticking and emigration of white blood cells in inflammation. The book examines neutrophil and eosinophil leucocytes, "life history" and functions of lymphocytes, and metabolism and physiology of mononuclear phagocytes. Topics include inflammatory response, biochemistry and metabolism, special relationships to bacteria and viruses, and origins and early development of lymphocytes. The text also ponders on the role of lysosomes in tissue injury, hemostatic mechanisms in tissue injury, and anti-inflammatory agents. The selection is a vital source of data for researchers interested in the inflammatory process.

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society

The metachromatic reaction. Protoplasmatoiogia, II. Springer- Verlag, Wein. Kitchtn, P. C. (1933). — Some observations on enamel development as shown in the mandibular incisor of the white rat. J. Dent. Res., 13, 25. Lison, L. (1935).

Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society

... containing its transactions and proceedings and a summary of current researches relating to zoology and botany (principally Invertebrata and Cryptogamia), microscopy, &c.

Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth

likely to react with histochemical reagents belong to the organic matrix of the enamel and therefore investigations have ... enamel these bands, according to Wislocki and Sognnaes (1950), are metachromatic with toluidine blue at pH 4—5.

Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth

Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth

United States Navy Medical Newsletter

... if present , was denatured during tissue processing and unable to ing a metachromatic reaction take a blue stain . Those substances which do show the reaction may evidence a range of color from purple ( a weak reaction ) to red or ...

United States Navy Medical Newsletter


The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes

The induced Cotton effect was dependent on the metachromatic reaction of the dyes and on the integrity of the heparin molecule. ... The hydrated electron (eaq _) reacts rapidly with MB + according to the reaction MB+ + eaq' -—> MB', ...

The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes

The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, Volume VII covers the synthesis and application of dyes, fluorescent brightening agents, color and electronic states of organic molecules, photochemistry of dyes, and physical chemistry of dyeing. This book is organized into five chapters—sulfur dyes; Bunte salt dyes; state of dye in dyebath and substrate; kinetics, equilibrium, dye-fiber affinity, and mechanisms; and applications of synthetic dyes to biological problems. This compilation specifically discusses the sulfur dyes of known constitution, analysis of sulfur dyes, and chemistry of Bunte salts. The chemical modification of proteins and dyes as antibacterial and therapeutic agents is also treated. This volume is recommended for organic chemists and technologists interested in the synthesis of dyes and their applications.

Fluorescence Microscopy in Life Sciences

Cationic dyes give orthochromatic staining and fluorescence reactions with neutral polysaccharides [24], but the most relevant reactions are the metachromatic staining induced by some planar or nonrigid fluorophores on acid GAGs [11, ...

Fluorescence Microscopy in Life Sciences

Fluorescence Microscopy is a precise and widely employed technique in many research and clinical areas nowadays. Fluorescence Microscopy In Life Sciences introduces readers to both the fundamentals and the applications of fluorescence microscopy in the biomedical field as well as biological research. Readers will learn about physical and chemical mechanisms giving rise to the phenomenon of luminescence and fluorescence in a comprehensive way. Also, the different processes that modulate fluorescence efficiency and fluorescence features are explored and explained.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

In pigs ' placentas , a positive reaction is given by secretion droplets in the uterine glandular and surface epithelia ... Unlike epithelial mucus ( acid mucopolysaccharides ) , this " serous ” secretion is neither metachromatic nor ...

Journal of the National Cancer Institute


Journal of the National Cancer Institute

( 21 ) KRAMMER , H. , and WINDRUM , G. M .: The metachromatic staining reaction . J Histochem Cytochem 3 : 227–237 , 1955 . ( 22 ) LAGUNOFF , D. , PHILLIPS , M. , and BENDITT , E. P .: The histochemical demonstration of histamine in mast ...

Journal of the National Cancer Institute


Acta Histochemica

Finally he believes the metachromatic reaction is a key to the general nature of all ionic activity . I believe the study of temperature effects on metachromasy will soon be one of the most direct approaches to a fundamental phenomenon ...

Acta Histochemica

Issues for 1958-1992 include proceedings of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Histochemie. Symposion; Gesellschaft für Histochemie. Symposion

Inorganic Polyphosphates

Therefore this phenomenon is called “metachromatic reaction”. A weakly acidic solution of toluidine blue is blue-coloured and exhibits an absorption maximum at 630 nm. In the presence of polyphosphates the maximum is at 530 nm and the ...

Inorganic Polyphosphates

Inorganic polyphosphates - polymers of orthophosphate linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds - have been found in apparently all forms of life, from bacteria, yeasts and fungi to higher plants and animals. These polymers, which had been neglected for a long time, have become a fascinating area of research in the last few years. This volume summarizes the present state of knowledge about the metabolism and function of inorganic polyphosphates. In addition, the methods to study these polymers as well as the biotechnological applications of inorganic polyphosphates are described. The 15 chapters of this volume, dealing with different aspects of polyphosphate research, are written by experts in the field. This book represents a valuable source of information not only for researchers working on this subject, but also for scientists interested in fundamental aspects of cell and energy metabolism.

Cerebral Sphingolipidoses

The fact that in some cases this abnormal material gives a metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue or thionine has led to endless subclassifications. Greenfield's (1933) cases were mucin-positive while Leslie's (1952) were not.

Cerebral Sphingolipidoses

Cerebral Sphingolipidoses: A Symposium on Tay-Sach’s Disease and Allied Disorders is a collection of papers presented at the 1961 Symposium on the Cerebral Sphingolipidoses, held in Isaac Albert Research Institute of the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital and the Downstate Medical Center of the State University of New York. The contributors demonstrate the significance attached to an intensive study of Tay-Sach’s and allied diseases. A unique feature of the Symposium was the constant awareness of the clinical implications of the fundamental studies presented. This book is organized into three sections encompassing 30 chapters. The first part deals with the morphological aspects of cerebral lipidoses, including the diagnosis, biopsy, pathology, and clinical features of these diseases. This part also provides case reports of specific cerebral sphingolipidoses. The second part highlights the biochemical aspects of Tay-Sach’s and allied disorders. This part specifically looks into the mechanism of abnormal lipid metabolism, chemical pathology of lipids, and quantitative fractionation of complex lipid mixtures. This part also considers the characterization of accumulated gangliosides in brain, which is one the most striking features in infantile amaurotic idiocy, a type of Tay-Sach’s disease. The third part explores the genetic and therapeutic aspects of the sphingolipidoses. This book will be of value to lipid chemists, geneticists, biochemists, neuropathologists, and clinicians.

Oestrogene Hypophysentumoren

For staining of C-cells in human postmortem specimens the metachromatic reaction with toluidine blue only seems to be valid. Durch den Nachweis der Biosynthese von Thyreocalcitonin in thyreoidalen C-Zellen [2,5] konnte die Existenz ...

Oestrogene Hypophysentumoren


The Human Blood Basophil

KELLY, J. W.; Suppression of metachromasia by basic proteins. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 55, 130–137 (1955). KELLY, J. W.: The metachromatic reaction, Protoplasma 2, 1–98 (1956). KERP, L., STEINHAUSER, G.: Uber einen tertiáren ...

The Human Blood Basophil

The blood basophils lead a shadowy existence in the field of hematology, even now, 100 years after their discovery by PAUL EHRLICH. In clinical medicine they were hardly noticed for many decades, since they occur in such small numbers in the blood that small and moderate variations in the basophil count were not detectable with common count ing methods. This situation has changed since the in troduction of direct counting methods. It was noticed, for example, that the blood basophil count is increased in hy perlipemia. In the field of pathology the blood basophil was prac tically overlooked until recently. This was due to the fact that with common fixations in aqueous solutions the granules dissolve, so that the cells can no longer be stained specifically and therefore escape observation. This problem was solved through special fixing solu tions. However, interest in the blood basophils remain ed confined to only a few research groups.