Ellen and Edith

a 31 , [ 1920 ] , in Arthur S. Link , ed . , The Papers of Woodrow Wilson , vol . 65 ( Princeton , N.J .: Princeton University Press , 1991 ) , 350. See Bert E. Park , M.D. , in PWW 58 , 627-630 . 3.The editorial was by Henry Wickham ...

Ellen and Edith

An authoritative dual biography of the two wives of Woodrow Wilson. Presents a rich and complex portrait of Wilson's marriages, first to the demure Ellen Axon Wilson and then to the controversial Edith Bolling Wilson, as well as his relationship with a "dearest friend," Mary Allen Hulbert Peck.

Cautious Visionary

1918 , file 4 , Hull Papers . 5. Wilson to Homer Stillé Cummings , 15 June 1920 , in Arthur S. Link , ed . , The Papers of Woodrow Wilson , vol . 65 ( Princeton : Princeton University Press , 1991 ) , 397 ; Hull , Memoirs , 1 : 104 ...

Cautious Visionary

Cordell Hull's persistence and legislative experience were determining factors in the development of the Trade Agreements Act, 1934. This text investigates the political struggles surrounding the passage and implementation of the Act, and its impact on Roosevelt's first administration.

Institutionalizing Congress and the Presidency

The Papers of Woodrow Wilson: Contents and Index, Volumes 53– 68: Volume 69: 1918–1924. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University ... The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 65: February 28–July 31, 1920. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University ...

Institutionalizing Congress and the Presidency

With its creation of the U.S. Bureau of Efficiency in 1916, Congress sought to bring the principles of “scientific management” to the federal government. Although this first staff agency in the executive branch lasted only a relatively short time, it was the first central agency in the federal government dedicated to improving the management of the executive branch. Mordecai Lee offers both a chronological history of the agency and a thematic treatment of the structure, staffing, and work processes of the bureau; its substantive activities; and its effects on the development of both the executive and the legislative branches. Charged with conducting management and policy analyses at the direction of the president, this bureau presaged the emergence of the activist and modern executive branch. The Bureau of Efficiency was also the first legislative branch agency, ushering in the large administrative infrastructure that now supports the policy-making and program oversight roles of Congress. The Bureau of Efficiency’s assistance to presidents foreshadowed the eventual change in the role of the president vis-a-vis Congress; it helped upend the separation of powers doctrine by giving the modern executive the management tools for preeminence over the legislative branch.

Sharing the Burden

Polk to Wilson, 6, 10 and March 22, 1920 and Wilson to Polk, 8 and March 17, 1920, in Wilson Papers, Vol. 65, 64–65,72–77,91, 111–115. Thompson, Woodrow Wilson, 236. Jackson Day message, January 8, 1920, Wilson Papers, Vol. 64,257–259.

Sharing the Burden

The destruction of the Armenian community in the Ottoman Empire was an unprecedented tragedy. Even amidst the horrors of the First World War, Theodore Roosevelt insisted that it was the greatest crime of the conflict. The wartime mass killing of approximately one million Armenian Christians was the culmination of a series of massacres that Winston Churchill would later recall had roused publics on both sides of the Atlantic and inspired fervent appeals to save the Armenians. Sharing the Burden explains how the Armenian struggle for survival became so entangled with the debate over the international role of the United States as it rose to world power status in the early twentieth century. In doing so, Charlie Laderman provides a fresh perspective on the role of humanitarian intervention in US foreign policy, Anglo-American relations, and the emergence of a new world order after World War I. The United States' responsibility to protect the Armenians was a central preoccupation of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Both American and British leaders proposed an Anglo-American alliance to take joint responsibilities for the Middle East and envisioned a US intervention to secure an independent Armenia as key to the new League of Nations. The Armenian question illustrates how policymakers, missionaries, and the public grappled for the first time with atrocities on this scale. It also reveals the values that animated American society during this pivotal period in the nation's foreign relations. Deepening understanding of the Anglo-American special relationship and its role in reforming global order, Sharing the Burden illuminates the possibilities, limitations, and continued dilemmas of humanitarian intervention in international politics.

Annotation

The new volumes of the Madison and Washington papers listed below are dedicated to the late Sara Dunlap Jackson , a member of the NHPRC reference staff from ... The Papers of Woodrow Wilson , Vol . 65 : February 28July 31 , 1920 ; Vol .

Annotation


20

[11] Roy Watson Curry, Woodrow Wilson and Far Eastern Policy,1913-1921,New York:Octagon Books, Inc.,1957,p.17. ... [19] Wilson to Charles William Eliot, Jan,20,1913,Link, ed.,The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Vol.27,p.65.

                                       20

本书从文化的视角,通过历史的考察和政策过程的分析,对美国外交中的意识形态及其对20世纪美中关系的影响进行了深入、系统的研究,揭示了民族主义和自由主义两大意识形态如何深刻地塑造了美国外交的独特性。

Dismantling the Ottoman Empire

48 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Bristol to Polk, October 21, 1919, ibid. ... Polk to Wilson, March 10, 1920, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vol. 65, 76–77. Wilson to Polk, March 17, 1920, ibid., 91.

Dismantling the Ottoman Empire

Prior to World War I, American involvement in Armenian affairs was limited to missionary and educational interests. This was contrary to Britain, which had played a key role in the diplomatic arena since the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, when the Armenian question had become a subject of great power diplomacy. However, by the end of the war the dynamics of the international system had undergone drastic change, with America emerging as one of the primary powers politically involved in the Armenian issue. Dismantling the Ottoman Empire explores this evolution of the United States’ role in the Near East, from politically distant and isolated power to assertive major player. Through careful analysis of the interaction of Anglo-American policies vis-à-vis the Ottoman Armenians, from the Great War through the Lausanne Peace Conference, it examines the change in British and American strategies towards the region in light of the tension between the notions of new diplomacy vs. old diplomacy. The book also highlights the conflict between humanitarianism and geostrategic interests, which was a particularly striking aspect of the Armenian question during the war and post war period. Using material drawn from public and personal archives and collections, it sheds light on the geopolitical dynamics and intricacies of great power politics with their long-lasting effects on the reshuffling of the Middle East. The book would be of interest to scholars and students of political & diplomatic history, Near Eastern affairs, American and British diplomacy in the beginning of the twentieth century, the history of the Ottoman Empire, the Middle East and the Caucasus.

The Donkey the Carrot and the Club

Bullitt to House , 10/25/17 , Bullitt Papers ; Wilson to Brougham , 10/30/17 , se- ries VI , Woodrow Wilson Papers , Library of Congress , Washington ... See Dokumenti vneshnei politiki , SSSR ( hereafter DVP ) ( Moscow , 1959 ) , vol .

The Donkey  the Carrot  and the Club

Uses a prominent figure in Soviet-American relations to explain the successes and failures of diplomacy in a crucial historical era.

The Great War in America World War I and Its Aftermath

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 Edwin C. Parsons, I Flew with the Lafayette Escadrille (Indianapolis: E.C. Seale, 1963), ... An Address, April 6, 1918, in Arthur S. Link, editor, The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vol.

The Great War in America  World War I and Its Aftermath

A chronicle of the American experience during World War I and the unexpected changes that rocked the country in its immediate aftermath—the Red Scare, race riots, women’s suffrage, and Prohibition. The Great War’s bitter outcome left the experience largely overlooked and forgotten in American history. This timely book is a reexamination of America’s first global experience as we commemorate World War I's centennial. The U.S. had steered clear of the European conflagration known as the Great War for more than two years, but President Woodrow Wilson reluctantly led the divided country into the conflict with the goal of making the world “safe for democracy.” The country assumed a global role for the first time and attempted to build the foundations for world peace, only to witness the experience go badly awry and it retreated into isolationism. Though overshadowed by the tens of millions of deaths and catastrophic destruction of World War II, the Great War was the most important war of the twentieth century. It was the first continent-wide conflagration in a century, and it drew much of the world into its fire. By the end of it, four empires and their royal houses had fallen, communism was unleashed, the map of the Middle East was redrawn, and the United States emerged as a global power – only to withdraw from the world’s stage. The Great War is often overlooked, especially compared to World War II, which is considered the “last good war.” The United States was disillusioned with what it achieved in the earlier war and withdrew into itself. Americans have tried to forget about it ever since. The Great War in America presents an opportunity to reexamine the country’s role on the global stage and the tremendous political and social changes that overtook the nation because of the war.

The Papers of Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson Arthur Stanley Link ... date when publication date differs delivery date of speech when publication date differs text deleted by author of document THE PAPERS OF WOODROW WILSON VOLUME 65 FEBRUARY 28 - xxiv ABBREVIATION.

The Papers of Woodrow Wilson

As this volume begins, controversy over ratification of the Versailles Treaty enters its climactic stage. Wilson, only partly recovered from a stroke, refuses the advice of supporters who beg him to accept Republican reservations in order to put the Treaty through the Senate, and he puts heavy pressure on those Democratic senators who want to consent to reservations. Twenty-one Democrats defy him when the Treaty comes up for a second and final vote on March 19, but their votes, combined with those of Republican reservationists, fall far short of the two-thirds Senate majority necessary for passage of the consent resolution. While Tumulty and the departmental heads carry on the domestic business of the federal government, Wilson follows their recommendations and signs a series of measures that bring various aspects of the progressive movement to fruition: the Transportation Act of 1920, the General Leasing Act, and the Water Power Act. Meanwhile, he devotes most of his strength to foreign affairs. He vetoes the "separate peace" embodied in the Knox Resolution, and the Democrats uphold the veto. In spite of Wilson's wish to run again for president, concern for his health prevails, and the Democrats nominate Governor James M. Cox of Ohio, who names Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, as his running mate. Wilson is deeply depressed, but he blesses the Cox and Roosevelt campaign with all the fervor he can summon.

The Superpowers

25 John M. Blum, Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality, Boston, 1956, pp. 20, 86, 95; The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vol. 65, Princeton, N.J., 1991, p. 70. 26 The Times, 4 April 191 3, pp. 7-8. 27 See Encyclopaedia Britannica, ...

The Superpowers

The Superpowers traces the development of the USA and Russia (later USSR) from 1898 through to 2000, placing the Cold War, from inception to ending, into the wider social, economic and political context. This is the first history of the two major participants and their relationship throughout the twentieth century. The Superpowers: explores the intertwining history of the two powers chronologically and includes discussion of: * the inheritance of the two great powers and their imperial background * World War One and the Russian Revolution * Capitalism and Socialism * World War Two and its impact * the conflicts in Berlin, Czechoslovakia, Vietnam and Afghanistan * Perestroika and the end of the USSR * the significance of the events of 1991 and their legacy.

Congress Vs the Bureaucracy

Kennedy, john F. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: john F. Kennedy, 1962. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1963. Link, Arthur S., ed. February 28—july 31, 1920. Vol. 65, The Papers of Woodrow Wilson.

Congress Vs  the Bureaucracy

Government bureaucracy is something Americans have long loved to hate. Yet despite this general antipathy, some federal agencies have been wildly successful in cultivating the people’s favor. Take, for instance, the U.S. Forest Service and its still-popular Smokey Bear campaign. The agency early on gained a foothold in the public’s esteem when President Theodore Roosevelt championed its conservation policies and Forest Service press releases led to favorable coverage and further goodwill. Congress has rarely approved of such bureaucratic independence. In Congress vs. the Bureaucracy, political scientist Mordecai Lee—who has served as a legislative assistant on Capitol Hill and as a state senator—explores a century of congressional efforts to prevent government agencies from gaining support for their initiatives by communicating directly with the public. Through detailed case studies, Lee shows how federal agencies have used increasingly sophisticated publicity techniques to muster support for their activities—while Congress has passed laws to counter those PR efforts. The author first traces congressional resistance to Roosevelt’s campaigns to rally popular support for the Panama Canal project, then discusses the Forest Service, the War Department, the Census Bureau, and the Department of Agriculture. Lee’s analysis of more recent legislative bans on agency publicity in the George W. Bush administration reveals that political battles over PR persist to this day. Ultimately, despite Congress’s attempts to muzzle agency public relations, the bureaucracy usually wins. Opponents of agency PR have traditionally condemned it as propaganda, a sign of a mushrooming, self-serving bureaucracy, and a waste of taxpayer dollars. For government agencies, though, communication with the public is crucial to implementing their missions and surviving. In Congress vs. the Bureaucracy, Lee argues these conflicts are in fact healthy for America. They reflect a struggle for autonomy that shows our government’s system of checks and balances to be alive and working well.

How the West Stole Democracy from the Arabs

Wilson to Colby, April 17, 1920, Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vol. 65, accessed online May 17, 2018, at 36. http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/WILS-01-65-02-0205. Meinertzhagen to Curzon, April 4, 1920; Allenby to Curzon, ...

How the West Stole Democracy from the Arabs

When Europe's Great War engulfed the Ottoman Empire, Arab nationalists rose in revolt against their Turkish rulers and allied with the British on the promise of an independent Arab state. In October 1918, the Arabs' military leader, Prince Faisal, victoriously entered Damascus and proclaimed a constitutional government in an independent Greater Syria. Faisal won American support for self-determination at the Paris Peace Conference, but other Entente powers plotted to protect their colonial interests. Under threat of European occupation, the Syrian-Arab Congress declared independence on March 8, 1920 and crowned Faisal king of a 'civil representative monarchy.' Sheikh Rashid Rida, the most prominent Islamic thinker of the day, became Congress president and supervised the drafting of a constitution that established the world's first Arab democracy and guaranteed equal rights for all citizens, including non-Muslims. But France and Britain refused to recognize the Damascus government and instead imposed a system of mandates on the pretext that Arabs were not yet ready for self-government. In July 1920, the French invaded and crushed the Syrian state. The fragile coalition of secular modernizers and Islamic reformers that had established democracy was destroyed, with profound consequences that reverberate still. Using previously untapped primary sources, including contemporary newspaper accounts, reports of the Syrian-Arab Congress, and letters and diaries from participants, How the West Stole Democracy from the Arabs is a groundbreaking account of an extraordinary, brief moment of unity and hope - and of its destruction.

Canada and the United States

3. Arthur S. Link , ed . , The Papers of Woodrow Wilson ( Princeton , 1990 ) , vol . 65 , 505 ; Wilson to Gompers , 20 June 1919 , Papers of Woodrow Wilson , 61:39 ; Ralph A. Stone , The Irreconcilables : The Fight Against the League of ...

Canada and the United States

From the American Revolution to NAFTA to the Helms-Burton Act and beyond, this work offers an assessment of relations between the USA and Canada. It seeks to distil a mass of detail concerning cultural, economic and political developments of mutual importance during the past two centuries.

Reconsidering Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson , “ Address at Brussels , ” June 19 , 1919 , in Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson , vol . ... Ronald J. Pestritto , Woodrow Wilson and the Roots of Modern Liberalism ( Lanham , Md .: Rowman & Littlefield , 2005 ) , 33–65 .

Reconsidering Woodrow Wilson

Some of today’s premier experts on Woodrow Wilson contribute to this new collection of essays about the former statesman, portraying him as a complex, even paradoxical president. Reconsidering Woodrow Wilson reveals a person who was at once an international idealist, a structural reformer of the nation’s economy, and a policy maker who was simultaneously accommodating, indifferent, resistant, and hostile to racial and gender reform. Wilson’s progressivism is discussed in chapters by biographer John Milton Cooper and historians Trygve Throntveit and W. Elliot Brownlee. Wilson’s philosophy about race and nation is taken up by Gary Gerstle, and his gender politics discussed by Victoria Bissel Brown. The seeds of Wilsonianism are considered in chapters by Mark T. Gilderhus on Wilson’s Latin American diplomacy and war; Geoffrey R. Stone on Wilson’s suppression of seditious speech; and Lloyd Ambrosius on entry into World War I. Emily S. Rosenberg and Frank Ninkovich explore the impact of Wilson’s internationalism on capitalism and diplomacy; Martin Walker sets out the echoes of Wilson’s themes in the cold war; and Anne-Marie Slaughter suggests how Wilson might view the promotion of liberal democracy today. These essays were originally written for a celebration of Wilson’s 150th birthday sponsored by the official national memorial to Wilson—the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars—in collaboration with the Woodrow Wilson House. That daylong symposium examined some of the most important and controversial areas of Wilson’s political life and presidency.

Prince Charoon et al

Wilson to Polk, 27 February 1920, with reply 28 February, in Link (ed), The Papers of Woodrow Wilson Vol 64, p 479, Vol 65, p 21; quoted in Purcell, 'The Relinquishment by the United States of Extraterritoriality in Siam', pp99–120. 9.

Prince Charoon et al

Southeast Asia needs to be dealt with as a whole, because, although the one national delegation from the region (Siam) took a minor part, nationalist movements in several Southeast Asian countries reached an early climax - significant though inconclusive - in the years 1919-1920. The planned Peace Conference, Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the victory of Communism in Russia, all contributed to this activity, and in spite of national differences it needs to be seen as a whole. The focus of the book will be on developments around 1919; thus it will bring out for the first time the unexpected significance for South-east Asia of the 1919 milestone. It will also have a biographical bias - taking a special interest in the personalities of major figures in this important period, in order to show the influences and the patterns of thought that underlie their activities at the time of the Peace Conference. Following a brief introduction making the link between world events in 1919 and South-east Asia, the book sets the scene in the region. Succeeding chapters deal with the five countries - Siam, Vietnam, Burma, Indonesia, Philippines - in which the years 1919-21 were of special significance, as well as the impact of the peace conferences in relationships with their neighbours, the growth of international Communism and global politics in later years.

Waging War

222 222 222 223 223 223 223 224 224 in Link, ed., Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vol. 48, p. ... “Defects of the U.S. War Machine,” New York Times (January 13, 1918); “A Bill To Create a Department of Munitions,” S.3327, 65th Cong., 2d Sess.

Waging War

"A timely account of a raging debate: The history of the ongoing struggle between the presidents and Congress over who has the power to declare and wage war. The Constitution states that it is Congress that declares war, but it is the presidents who have more often taken us to war and decided how to wage it. In Waging War, United States Circuit Judge for the United States Court of Appeals David Barron opens with an account of George Washington and the Continental Congress over Washington's plan to burn New York City before the British invasion. Congress ordered him not to, and he obeyed. Barron takes us through all the wars that followed: 1812, the Mexican War, the Civil War, the Spanish-American war, World Wars One and Two, Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, and now, most spectacularly, the War on Terror. Congress has criticized George W. Bush for being too aggressive and Barack Obama for not being aggressive enough, but it avoids a vote on the matter. By recounting how our presidents have declared and waged wars, Barron shows that these executives have had to get their way without openly defying Congress. Waging War shows us our country's revered and colorful presidents at their most trying times--Washington, Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Johnson, both Bushes, and Obama. Their wars have made heroes of some and victims of others, but most have proved adept at getting their way over reluctant or hostile Congresses. The next president will face this challenge immediately--and the Constitution and its fragile system of checks and balances will once again be at the forefront of the national debate"--

When the United States Invaded Russia

2, 357n47; Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Robert Lansing to Wilson, April 22, 1918, vol. ... Ibid., 133; Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Joseph P. Tumulty to Edith Wil- son, March 26, 1920, vol. 65, 134–35. 16.

When the United States Invaded Russia

One of the earliest U.S. counterinsurgency campaigns outside the Western Hemisphere, the Siberian intervention was a harbinger of policies to come. At the height of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson dispatched thousands of American soldiers to Siberia, and continued the intervention for a year and a half after the armistice in order to overthrow the Bolsheviks and to prevent the Japanese from absorbing eastern Siberia. Its tragic legacy can be found in the seeds of World War II, and in the Cold War.

Political Women

Mary Beard and Florence Kelly, 'Amending State Constitutions', HR 65A—H8.14, Box 340, the National Archives, Washington, DC. 25. ... Carrie Chapman Catt to Woodrow Wilson, 7 May 1917, The Private Papers of Woodrow Wilson, vol.

Political Women

Under what conditions are political elites responsive to social movements, and when do social movements gain access to political elites? This book explores this question with regard to the women's movement in the US, asking under what conditions are Congress and the presidency responsive to the women's movement, and when will the women's movement gain access to Congress and the presidency? The book systematically compares the relation between political leaders and each of the three waves of the women's movement, 1848-1889, 1890-1928, and 1960-1985, in light of the political dynamics that each wave faced. The author utilizes perspectives and methods from the fields of Political Science, Sociology, and History to illustrate the ways in which changing political dynamics impacted the battle for both women's suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment. A significant addition to the study of women's history and American studies, Political Women illlustrates the important roles that political leaders played in the battle for women's suffrage and the ERA and demonstrates the political savvy among women suffrage activists who recognized the institutional barriers present in the US political system and fought to overcome them.

Science and the Founding Fathers Science in the Political Thought of Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Franklin John Adams and James Madison

Papers ofWoodrow Wilson, vol. 18, p. 105. See Supplement 12. 64. Papers ofWoodrow Wilson, vol. 18, p. 106. 65. Ibid., p. 106. 66. Ibid., p. 107. 67. Woodrow Wilson: Congressional Government: A Study in American Politics (Boston: ...

Science and the Founding Fathers  Science in the Political Thought of Thomas Jefferson  Benjamin Franklin  John Adams  and James Madison

General readers, students of American history, and professional historians alike will profit from reading this engaging presentation of an aspect of American history conspicuously absent from the usual textbooks and popular presentations of the political thought of early America. Thomas Jefferson was the only president who could read and understand Newton's Principia. Benjamin Franklin is credited with establishing the science of electricity. John Adams had the finest education in science that the new country could provide, including "Pnewmaticks, Hydrostaticks, Mechanicks, Staticks, Opticks." James Madison, chief architect of the Constitution, peppered his Federalist Papers with references to physics, chemistry, and the life sciences. For these men science was an integral part of life—including political life. This is the story of their scientific education and of how they employed that knowledge in shaping the political issues of the day, incorporating scientific reasoning into the Constitution.