We are drawn into the object or event in order to experience “its” rhythm. As
something experienced, rhythm shares the irreducibility and the unrepeatability
of experience. Although the rhythm of an event is but one of many properties we
Author: Christopher Hasty
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Drawing on insights from the modern "process" philosophy of Bergson, William James, and A. N. Whitehead, Christopher Hasty's Meter as Rhythm releases meter from its mechanistic connotations and recognizes it as a concrete, visceral agent of musical expression. Hasty reinterprets oppositions of law and freedom, structure and process, determinacy and indeterminacy to form a theory that engages diverse repertories and aesthetic issues. The revised 20th anniversary edition facilitates the work's current contexts of application, from new subfields in ethnomusicology and music cognition to non-music fields like literary studies, physics, and biology.
The perceptual onset is the moment atwhich a listener canfirst hearthatan event
has begun (Vos &Rasch, 1981).A musical event's Perceptual Attack Time (“PAT”)
is its perceived moment of rhythmic placement (Gordon, 1987; Collins, 2006; ...
Author: Jonathan Berger
This book studies the effects of repetitive musical rhythm on the brain and nervous system, and in doing so integrates diverse fields including ethnomusicology, psychology, neuroscience, anthropology, religious studies, music therapy, and human health. It presents aspects of musical rhythm and biological rhythms, and in particular rhythmic entrainment, in a way that considers cultural context alongside theoretical research and discussions of potential clinical and therapeutic implications. Considering the effects of drumming and other rhythmic music on mental and bodily functioning, the volume hypothesizes that rhythmic music can have a dramatic impact on mental states, sometimes catalyzing profound changes in arousal, mood, and emotional states via the stimulation of changes in physiological functions like the electrical activity in the brain. The experiments presented here make use of electroencephalography (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and subjective measures to gain insight into how these mental states are evoked, what their relationship is to the music and context of the experience, and demonstrate that they are happening in a consistent and reproducible fashion, suggesting clinical applications. This comprehensive volume will appeal to scholars in cognition, ethnomusicology, and music perception who are interested in the therapeutic potential of music.
As an A-series percept rhythm events are susceptible to a phenomenological
description of active rhythmic experience. As B-series objects, a set of rhythms is
categorized by structural type, as we shall see in Section 4. Can we compare ...
Author: Peter Cheyne
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Rhythm is the fundamental pulse that animates poetry, music, and dance across all cultures. And yet the recent explosion of scholarly interest across disciplines in the aural dimensions of aesthetic experience--particularly in sociology, cultural and media theory, and literary studies--has yet to explore this fundamental category. This book furthers the discussion of rhythm beyond the discrete conceptual domains and technical vocabularies of musicology and prosody. With original essays by philosophers, psychologists, musicians, literary theorists, and ethno-musicologists, The Philosophy of Rhythm opens up wider-and plural-perspectives, examining formal affinities between the historically interconnected fields of music, dance, and poetry, while addressing key concepts such as embodiment, movement, pulse, and performance. Volume editors Peter Cheyne, Andy Hamilton, and Max Paddison bring together a range of key questions: What is the distinction between rhythm and pulse? What is the relationship between everyday embodied experience, and the specific experience of music, dance, and poetry? Can aesthetics offer an understanding of rhythm that helps inform our responses to visual and other arts, as well as music, dance, and poetry? And, what is the relation between psychological conceptions of entrainment, and the humane concept of rhythm and meter? Overall, The Philosophy of Rhythm appeals across disciplinary boundaries, providing a unique overview of a neglected aspect of aesthetic experience.
This book is based on contributions to the project Rhythm in the Age of Digital Reproduction (RADR), a five-year research project running from 2004 to 2009 that was funded by the Norwegian Research Council.
Author: Anne Danielsen
Musical Rhythm in the Age of Digital Reproduction presents new insights into the study of musical rhythm through investigations of the micro-rhythmic design of groove-based music. The main purpose of the book is to investigate how technological mediation - in the age of digital music production tools - has influenced the design of rhythm at the micro level. Through close readings of technology-driven popular music genres, such as contemporary R&B, hip-hop, trip-hop, electro-pop, electronica, house and techno, as well as played folk music styles, the book sheds light on how investigations of the musical-temporal relationships of groove-based musics might be fruitfully pursued, in particular with regard to their micro-rhythmic features. This book is based on contributions to the project Rhythm in the Age of Digital Reproduction (RADR), a five-year research project running from 2004 to 2009 that was funded by the Norwegian Research Council.
But, it may be asked, how can “any” possible rhythmic event be made to occur in
a system which assumes a minimum duration between successive time-points,
and admits no durations other than those which are integral multiples of this unit
Author: Milton Babbitt
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Like his compositions, Milton Babbitt's writings about music have exerted an extraordinary influence on postwar music and thinking about music. In essays and public addresses spanning fifty years, Babbitt has grappled profoundly with central questions in the composition and apprehension of music. These writings range from personal memoirs and critical reviews to closely reasoned metatheoretical speculations and technical exegesis. In the history of music theory, there has been only a small handful of figures who have produced work of comparable stature. Taken as a whole, Babbitt's writings are not only an invaluable testimony to his thinking--a priceless primary source for the intellectual and cultural history of the second half of the twentieth century--but also a remarkable achievement in their own right. Prior to this collection, Babbitt's writings were scattered through a wide variety of journals, books, and magazines--many hard to find and some unavailable--and often contained typographical errors and editorial corruptions of various kinds. This volume of almost fifty pieces gathers, corrects, and annotates virtually everything of significance that Babbitt has written. The result is complete, authoritative, and fully accessible--the definitive source of Babbitt's influential ideas.
Can the choice of the ostinato rhythmic pattern in Steve Reich's Clapping Music
be informed in terms of rhythm complexity? ... the rate of rhythmic activity (in terms
of the number of rhythmic events) was the most powerful measure of complexity.
Author: Godfried T. Toussaint
Publisher: CRC Press
The Geometry of Musical Rhythm: What Makes a "Good" Rhythm Good? is the first book to provide a systematic and accessible computational geometric analysis of the musical rhythms of the world. It explains how the study of the mathematical properties of musical rhythm generates common mathematical problems that arise in a variety of seemingly dispara
Photoperiodism. and. Developmental. Events. Behavioral activities, such as
locomotion or feeding, may be shown to be rhythmic because their occurrence in
the life of the insect can be observed every day. Daily repetitive behavioral
Author: Stanley D. Beck
Insect Photoperiodism reviews the many aspects of photoperiodism, particularly in insects, emphasizing the concepts that serve to place the subject in a meaningful relationship to the whole of modern biology. Photoperiodism is the study of the adaptive mechanisms by which living systems exploit this source of temporal information. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins by discussing the relationships between an endogenous behavioral rhythm and the exogenous photoperiod. Aside from behavioral activities, it also shows that some observable developmental events tend to occur at species-typical times of the day and to be photoperiodically regulated. Notably, photoperiod may exert either or both of two regulatory effects on insect development: growth rate effects or polymorphism. Furthermore, the characteristics of some of the principal physiological rhythms that have been studied; role of photoperiod in the control of diapauses; and the circadian functions and theoretical nature of biological clock are explored in this book.
Rhythm results from a series of ordered events that repeat . The complete series
is called a " cycle . " To be more exact and emphatic , the cycles of interest here
are rhythmic cycles " or " periodic cycles . ” One should realize that there are
Christopher Hasty, in his book Meter as rhythm, makes the paradox poignantly
clear: As something experienced, rhythm shares the irreducibility and the
unrepeatability of experience ... when it is past, the rhythmic event cannot be
again made ...
Author: Jeanne Bamberger
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Following her distinguished earlier career as a concert pianist and later as a music theorist, Jeanne Bamberger conducted countless case studies analysing musical development and creativity the results of which were published in important scientific journals. Discovering musical mind draws together in one source these classic studies, offering the chance to revisit and reconsider some of her conclusions. Reviewing the data in light of current theories of cognitive development, she discusses how some of the conclusions she drew stand up to scrutiny, whilst in other cases, anomalies turn out to have greater significance than expected. The book is a collection of Bamberger's papers from 1975 to 2011. It includes her first study of Beethoven's original fingerings, her beginning work with children's invented notations, close observations and analysis of children in the Laboratory for Making Things, studies of musically gifted children, and the emergent musical development of students in elementary-secondary school and university undergraduate and graduate studies. The observations and research lead to the development of an interactive, computer-based music environment that uses her pragmatic theory of musical development as the basis for a project-oriented program for teaching and learning. Unlike other collections, the book is both interdisciplinary and strongly practical. It brings together and integrates Bamberger's background in music theory, research in music perception and music education, performance, cognitive development, artificial intelligence, and procedural music composition. Her multi-faceted approach to music theory and music pedagogy is guided throughout by her commitment to an understanding and respect for an individual's natural, creative musical intelligence. This natural competence becomes the formative ground on which to help people of all ages build an ever growing understanding and engagement with the evolving structures of the world's music. Bringing together a body of research currently scattered across a range of journals, or simply no longer available, the book will make fascinating reading for those in the fields of musical developmental and educational psychology.
Mirroring of event rhythms by brain rhythms It merits emphasis that there is a
remarkable a priori match between the rhythmic structures of many behaviourally
relevant events, and those of brain oscillations. The temporal structures of the
Author: Anna C. Nobre
Publisher: OUP Oxford
During the last three decades there have been enormous advances in our understanding of the neural mechanisms of selective attention at the network as well as the cellular level. The Oxford Handbook of Attention brings together the different research areas that constitute contemporary attention research into one comprehensive and authoritative volume. In 40 chapters, it covers the most important aspects of attention research from the areas of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, human and animal neuroscience, and computational modelling. The book is divided into six main sections. Following an introduction from Michael Posner, The Oxford Handbook of Attention begins by looking at theoretical models of attention. The next two sections are dedicated to spatial attention and non-spatial attention respectively. Within section 4, the authors consider the interactions between attention and other psychological domains. The last two sections focus on attention related disorders and on computational models of attention. A final epilogue chapter written by Nobre and Kastner summarizes the questions, methods, findings, and emerging principles of contemporary attention research. For both scholars and students, The Oxford Handbook of Attention provides a concise and state-of-the-art review of the current literature in this field.
Introduction The function of the circadian system is to co - ordinate the phase of a
biological event to a specific feature of the 24 - h environmental cycle , and to
ensure that the phases of multiple rhythmic events within the organism are ...
Author: Vinod Kumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
(Chapters 11 to 14) summarise important features of the biological clock at the level of whole animal covering all vertebrate classes (fish to mammal). Chapters 15 and 16 are on long term (seasonal) rhythms in plants and higher vertebrates. Short term rhythms (ultradian rhythms), the significance of having a clock system in animals living in extreme (arctic) environments, and the diversity of circadian responses to melatonin, the key endocrine element involved in regulation of biological rhythms, have been discussed in Chapters 17 to 19. Finally, a chapter on sensitivity to light of the photoperiodic clock is added which, using vertebrate examples, illustrates the importance of wavelength and intensity of light on circadian and non-circadian functions. A well-known expert writes each chapter. When presenting information, the text provides consistent thematic coverage and feeling for the methods of investigation. Reference citation within the body of the text adequately reflects the literature as subject is developed. A chapter begins with an abstract that enables a reader to know at the first glance the important points covered in that chapter. The chapter concludes with a full citation of references included in the text, which could be useful for further reading. The book ends with a comprehensive subject index that may be useful for quick searches.
short) of this rhythmic event is typically not exactly 24 hours, but close to it and
therefore called circadian. If in the absence of LD and temperature cycles other
24-hour time cues (also called Zeitgeber, German for time-giver) would control
Author: Lars Olof Björn
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Since the publication of the first edition in 2002, there has been an explosion of new findings and applications in the field of photobiology. This brand new edition is fully updated, includes new references, and offers five new chapters for a comprehensive look at photobiology. The chapters cover all areas of photobiology, photochemistry, and the relationship between light and biology. The book starts with the physics and chemistry of light and then deals with the evolution of photosynthesis. Four chapters deal with how organisms use light for their orientation in space and time. There are also several medically oriented chapters and two chapters specifically aimed at the photobiology educator.
You judge the timing of every new rhythmic event based on expectations you've
built up from the patterns of events preceding it—not based on how it lines up
with any notional metric grid you might have superimposed on those events.
Author: Mike Senior
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Technology & Engineering
Discover how to achieve release-quality mixes even in the smallest studios by applying power-user techniques from the world's most successful producers. Mixing Secrets For The Small Studio is a down-to-earth primer for small-studio enthusiasts who want chart-ready sonics in a hurry. Drawing on the back-room strategies of more than 100 famous names, this entertaining guide leads you step-by-step through the entire mixing process. On the way, you'll unravel the mysteries of every type of mix processing, from simple EQ and compression through to advanced spectral dynamics and 'fairy dust' effects. User-friendly explanations introduce technical concepts on a strictly need-to-know basis, while chapter summaries and assignments are perfect for school and college use. * Learn the subtle editing, arrangement, and monitoring tactics which give industry insiders their competitive edge, and master the psychological tricks which protect you from all the biggest rookie mistakes. * Find out where you don't need to spend money, as well as how to make a limited budget really count. * Pick up tricks and tips from leading-edge engineers working on today's multi-platinum hits, including Michael Brauer, Serban Ghenea, the Lord-Alge brothers, Tony Maserati, Manny Marroquin, Dave 'Hard Drive' Pensado, Jack Joseph Puig, Mark 'Spike' Stent, Phil Tan, Andy Wallace, and many, many more... Mike Senior is a professional engineer who has worked with Wet Wet Wet, The Charlatans, Reef, Therapy, and Nigel Kennedy. He specialises in adapting the techniques of top producers for those working on a budget. Since 2007 he has transformed dozens of amateur productions for Sound On Sound magazine's popular 'Mix Rescue' column, proving time and again that you can achieve commercial-grade results with affordable gear -- once you know how!
Rhythm results from the consistent recurrence of an event or detail that breaks up
the formless background of time or space into convenient units. Rhythm is a
principle that enables us to recognize or bring order into our perception of time
47 myoclonic seizures are single , or irregularly recurrent , events . The estimated
rate of rhythmic recurrence of clonic seizures ranges from between 1-2 Hzll and 2
–3 Hz- to up to 5 Hz.52 The ILAE glossary considers clonic seizures to be ...
Author: C. P. Panayiotopoulos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Affecting 4 percent of children and 1-2 percent of the general population, epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. The 1st edition of this guide proved to be the only one of its kind, covering many important aspects of diagnosis and treatment. Due to the continued advances being made in the subject, and building on the sell-out success of the 1st edition this thorough revision reflects the latest report of the ILAE classification core group and the significant progress made in the diagnosis, classification and treatment of the epilepsies.
Rhythm. in. Popular. Music. In the excellent documentary Rock and Roll: The
Early Years, there is a clip of a white ... to which all other rhythmic features relate;
and in the third it refers to the full range of rhythmic events that interact to make
Author: Michael Campbell
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Michael Campbell's best-selling POPULAR MUSIC IN AMERICA, now in its fourth edition, remains the industry standard in breadth of coverage, readability, and musical focus. The text provides a rich account of the evolution of popular music from the mid-19th century to the present. Discussions highlight connections, contrasts, and patterns of influence among artists, styles, and eras. Coverage of listening skills allows students to place music of their choice in context. The Fourth Edition expands the coverage of country, Latin, world, and late 20th century music to give instructors more options to teach the course as they choose to. A major reorganization replaces long chapters with units broken into small chapters to make the material easier for students to read and master. Units are clearly defined by style and timeframe, and chapters feature narrowly focused objectives. This edition features a vibrant, richly illustrated, magazine-like design, plus numerous online resources. Almost all listening examples are available on iTunes via dedicated playlists; instructors who adopt the text will also receives copies of the heritage 3-CD set from the 3rd edition for personal, library, and class use. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
In the continuous event, editing will be unnecessary because the entire event is
captured in only one shot. The editor will not have control over the rhythm or
anything else in the shot. The visual rhythm of the scene must be controlled as
Author: Bruce Block
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Performing Arts
If you can't make it to one of Bruce Block's legendary visual storytelling seminars, then you need his book! Now in full color for the first time, this best-seller offers a clear view of the relationship between the story/script structure and the visual structure of a film, video, animated piece, or video game. You'll learn how to structure your visuals as carefully as a writer structures a story or a composer structures music. Understanding visual structure allows you to communicate moods and emotions, and most importantly, reveals the critical relationship between story structure and visual structure. The concepts in this book will benefit writers, directors, photographers, production designers, art directors, and editors who are always confronted by the same visual problems that have faced every picture maker in the past, present, and future.
performance, since the performer would be measuring time (meter) instead of
becoming it (rhythm). ... (Zuckerkandl 1956: 170) If meter constitutes a capability
to perceive difference in succeeding events, rhythm is the perceived motion in the
Author: Mickey Vallee
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
It has been sixty years since Rock 'n' Roll exploded into the mainstream, yet we remain limited in our understanding of how its bawdy excesses absorbed into the annals of mass popularity in such a short amount of time. Mickey Vallee asks: what if the Rock 'n' Roll eruption was nothing less than postwar consumer capitalism at its very best, precisely because it was taken as its very worst? Vallee explores the emergence of Rock 'n' Roll's from an entirely new theoretical disposition in order to answer this question, drawing mainly from Lacanian cultural psychoanalysis to reveal that Rock 'n' Roll was far more conformist than we are generally led to believe; namely, that it was conformist with emerging liberal principles of freedom from the tyranny of the state. Vallee supports this proposition with detailed analyses of familiar (and not-so-familiar) characters and texts in Rock 'n' Roll to suggest that the disruption of our symbolic economy was symptomatic of a new cultural logic of economic freedom. While not denying Rock 'n' Roll's role in the pre-civil rights movement, Vallee refuses the possibility to deny that Rock 'n' Roll's symbolic efficacy ultimately coordinated a neoliberal foundation to the ideology of individualism in its rhythm, instrumentation, lyrics, and vocals, where its power was at its most effective and affective.
This track opens with a multipart guitar solo on the rhythm pickup, featuring
expressive hammer-ons, with Hendrix adding ... roots on his bass on every
downbeat, which rhythmic event is also marked every bar by Ginger Baker's
Author: Walter Everett
Publisher: Oxford University Press
A comprehensive introduction to the inner workings of rock music, The Foundations of Rock goes back to the heart of the music itself from the time of its birth through the end of classic rock. Walter Everett expertly takes readers through all aspects of the music and its lyrics, leading fans and listeners to new insights and new ways to develop their own interpretations of the aural landscapes of their lives. Written with style, Everett does not depend on musical notation nor professional jargon, but rather combines text with nearly 300 newly written audio examples (performed on the companion website) and more than 100 expertly chosen photographs, to offer a rich text-and-web experience that brings new meanings to songs that have dominated music for a half-century. Through careful illustration, frequently citing the most familiar and pertinent examples from throughout the 1955-1970 period, The Foundations of Rock covers the nature and use of all musical instruments and vocal qualities; reveals the many different ways that phrases and sections of songs can be combined; discusses the materials and patterns in melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic invention; explains the many important ways that producers and engineers add to the artistry; and finally suggests paths for combining an understanding of all of these elements with interpretations of a song's lyrics. This is all done in thorough detail, and always with an ear towards the possible meanings such techniques convey in a music that has had a profound impact upon our world. In doing so, Everett helps readers create new depths of understanding and appreciation. Hundreds of memorable hit songs are referred to in order to illustrate every individual point, while twenty-five diverse classics of the period have been chosen for very close hearing from multiple perspectives. The reader will come away with a much deeper appreciation of the music of the Beatles and the Stones, the Supremes and the Temptations, the Dead and Janis, Elvis and Buddy Holly, the Beach Boys and the Rascals.