THE ROLE OF IMMUNE COMPONENTS IN PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS Topic Editors: Marion Leboyer, Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne, France Iris E. Sommer, University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands Michael Berk, Deakin University, ...
Large scale genetic studies have also argued in favor of a role of immune components in psychiatric disorders. Studies validating immune hypotheses have demonstrated altered levels and activities of various inflammatory immune mediators ...
Author: Michael Berk
Publisher: Springer Nature
This book presents a thorough and critical review of current knowledge on the role of immunology in major psychiatric disorders and its potential applications. The opening chapters offer general information on the immune influence of the brain to provide readers with a better understanding of the end of immune privilege. The book then examines possible underlying mechanisms leading to psychiatric disorders, from early infections to pro-inflammatory markers, stress, and immune genetic background, linking etiology and psychiatry. The third section describes each disorder (ie autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression...) with an overview of underlying immune dysfunctions. Lastly, the authors discuss the innovative immune-therapies that may result from the discovery of immune system biomarkers and their associated mechanisms. A better understanding of the role of the immune system in psychiatric disorders makes it possible to identify stratification biomarkers, to explain underlying mechanisms, and to develop innovative, efficient, targeted treatment strategies and management. As such, the book is of value to clinicians, mental health professionals, mental health researchers, immunologists, industry practitioners, and various stakeholders in the mental health field.
Although its role is not fully understood, it appears that this area of research can help to understand the etiology of mental illness. One of the components of the human immune system is the complement system, which forms a part of the ...
Author: Błażej Misiak
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression represent complex phenotypes with imprecise diagnostic boundaries. It has been found that these disorders can be characterized by a number of peripheral immune-inflammatory alterations, including, i.e. elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased levels of specific and non-specific antibodies or abnormal counts of lymphocyte subpopulations. Although it has been found that major psychiatric disorders share similar dysregulations of immune-inflammatory response, recent studies have also clearly demonstrated that some differences can be indicated. Interestingly, certain immune-inflammatory disturbances appear to be state markers, since they occur in acute relapse and normalize following pharmacological treatment, while the rest represents trait markers that remain stable regardless of treatment. It is also important to note that peripheral immune-inflammatory markers have been associated with psychopathological manifestation of major psychiatric disorders, response to treatment and long-term outcomes. However, it remains unclear what is the origin of peripheral inflammation in psychiatric disorders. To date, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the gut-brain axis dysregulation, infections in the neurodevelopmental period or immunogenetic factors. This eBook summarizes current evidence from studies investigating peripheral inflammation in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder as well as it provides future directions for the field.
negative effects on the immune system, and possibly also on psychiatric disorders (Cryan and Dinan 2012). ... Views on the Role of Infections and Autoimmunity in Association with Schizophrenia and Depression The underlying etiological ...
Author: Norbert Müller
Psychiatric disorders are one of the most dramatic burdens for humankind. The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of these disorders has emerged during the last years, because there has been tremendous progress in psychoneuroimmunological research. Many results are presented here by pioneers in the field. The book addresses various effects of the immune system on the pathophysiology and course of psychiatric disorders and highlights the possible future impact on treatment decisions of various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. The contributions cover the role of in utero immune challenges on the development of schizophrenia, the role of infections, and autoimmune diseases and mild immune activation in the development of depression and schizophrenia, the influence of immune responses in other disorders such as Tourette's, Alzheimer's, and OCD, the connections between mental and physical pain as well as between anti-inflammatory and antipsychotic drugs.
Targeting components of ECS components provides therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines as CBRs and other components of the ECS that are involved in diverse neural, immune, function, and dysfunction (Robson 2014), in psychiatric ...
Author: Eric Murillo-Rodriguez
Publisher: Springer Nature
This volume highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the endocannabinoid system and the likely benefit from the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid treatment in a variety of health issues. Archeological evidence has shown that Cannabis has a long history of use for multiple purposes, including the treatment of medical conditions. The primary active constituent of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), causes euphoria, enhancement of sensory perception, tachycardia, antinociception, difficulties in concentration and impairment of memory, among other effects. Despite these undesirable effects, signaling is mostly inhibitory and suggests a putative role for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents by managing several diseases where inhibition of neurotransmitter release would be beneficial. The themes of this book have been edited and written by world-leaders in the field, The contents of the volume aims at readers from a range of academic and professional disciplines, such as biomedicine, several areas of biology, neurology, clinical medicine and pharmacy.
In 2009, Monji proposed the microglia hypothesis of schizophrenia in which microglia play an essential role in the development of schizophrenia (Monji et al., 2009). As a core immune component in the central nervous system (CNS), ...
Inflammation and Immunity in Depression: Basic Science and Clinical Applications is the first book to move beyond the established theory of cytokine-induced depression and explore the broader role the immune system plays in this devastating ...
Author: Bernhard Baune
Publisher: Academic Press
Inflammation and Immunity in Depression: Basic Science and Clinical Applications is the first book to move beyond the established theory of cytokine-induced depression and explore the broader role the immune system plays in this devastating mood disorder. The book fully explores the most recent lines of research into this rapidly advancing field, including alterations of T-cells, the neurobiological implications of neuroinflammation and immune alterations for brain development and function, and the genetic components of neuroinflammation in depression, including the relationships between stress and inflammation that are revealing gene-environment interactions in the disorder. Combining contributions from researchers worldwide, this book provides the most comprehensive discussion available today on the involvement of the innate immune and adaptive immune systems in depressive disorder. Chapters span neuroscience, psychology, clinical applications and future directions, making this book an invaluable resource for advanced students, researchers and practitioners who need to understand the complex and varied role of inflammation and immune responses in depression. Synthesizes current knowledge of inflammation and immunity in depression, ranging from basic neuroscience research, to clinical applications in psychiatry Expands on the long-established theory of cytokine-induced depression to discuss broader involvement of the immune system Explores translational potential of targeting immune dysfunction for clinical interventions
A Clinician's Introduction to the Immune Basis of Mental Disorders Antonio L. Teixeira, Moises E. Bauer ... no benefit of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for cognitive function and dementia in cognitively healthy older people.118 Another ...
Author: Antonio L. Teixeira
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In recent years, a dedicated effort has been made to understand the immune dysfunction that is associated with major psychiatric disorders. The expanding knowledge of the immune system as a major homeostatic system has been very helpful in indicating new potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders. Indeed, immune cells, their secreted molecules, and cell signalling events are highly promising. Yet, the literature on immunology of psychiatric disorders is still dispersed, and only a few attempts have been made to consolidate the current knowledge in this expanding area. This book assembles and presents the available data on the immune/inflammatory dysfunction in psychiatric disorders, indicating the potential of immune mechanisms as either biomarkers or therapeutic targets, as well as discussing the challenges ahead of incorporating this knowledge into clinical practice. An international team of senior experts in the field review all psychiatric disorders in order to provide an integrated, in-depth understanding of the role of immune changes in psychiatric diseases for mental health clinicians as well as for researchers in immunology, psychiatry, neurology, and pharmacology.
Group II activating Total observed ASD FIGURE 1 | Total components of the discriminant function. (A). HLA-CTotal expected ASD p = HLA-C Group I activating Group I activating Group II activating 1 10 10 1 10 32 24 24 10 32 18 25 2 4 5 2 ...
While the role of the immune system in the onset of neurologic disease has been well documented for the subset of diseases with a clear autoimmune component, genetics has offered investigators a powerful tool to investigate this ...
Author: Roger N. Rosenberg
Publisher: Academic Press
Rosenberg’s Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease, Sixth Edition: Volume One, provides a comprehensive introduction and reference to the foundations and key practical aspects relevant to neurologic and psychiatric disease. A favorite of over three generations of students, clinicians and scholars, this new edition retains and expands the informative, concise and critical tone of the first edition. This is an essential reference for general medical practitioners, neurologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, and related professionals, and for the neuroscience and neurology research community. The content covers all aspects essential to the practice of neurogenetics to inform clinical diagnosis, treatment and genetic counseling. Every chapter has been thoroughly revised or newly commissioned to reflect the latest scientific and medical advances by an international team of leading scientists and clinicians. The contents have been expanded to include disorders for which a genetic basis has been recently identified, together with abundant original illustrations that convey and clarify the key points of the text in an attractive, didactic format. Comprehensive coverage of the neurogenetic foundation of neurological and psychiatric disease Provides a detailed introduction on both the clinical and basic research implications of molecular and genetics surrounding the brain Includes new chapters on molecular genomics, CRISPR and the most recent updates in molecular genetics
... the role of the immune system in the development of psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. The purpose of this section is to provide a general overview of basic immune function, describing both the components of ...
Author: Alexander W. Kusnecov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This comprehensive resource details the history, methodology and development of research into psychoneuroimmunology, balancing it with meticulous coverage of both the clinical aspects and practical applications of the subject. A much-needed reference including overviews of key advances in the field Discusses how psychoneuroimmunological research is conceived and executed Includes contributions from a wealth of experts in the field Forward by Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen, founders of the discipline Authoritative and interdisciplinary in scope - integrating biological and behavioral science
schizophrenia and could at least be partially responsible for the reduced numbers of synapses found in the brains of ... various immune geneticnetworks that may play a role in psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and ASD, ...
Author: Richard K. Burt
Publisher: CRC Press
This book summarizes the global progress in medical and scientific research toward converting traditionally chronic autoimmune diseases into a drug-free reversible illness using hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and other cellular therapies such as T regulatory cells (Treg), mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells in order to reintroduce sustained immune tolerance. This title provides information on different types of stem cells and immune cells; post-transplant immune regeneration; cellular regulatory requirements; ethical and economic considerations; and the advantages and disadvantages of HSCT in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases versus current conventional treatments. Arranged by disease, the text provides a comprehensive guide to HSCT for all types of autoimmune/immune disorders including monogenetic autoimmune diseases; autoimmune aplastic anemia; neurologic immune diseases including multiple sclerosis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, neuromyelitis optica, and stiff person syndrome; rheumatologic diseases such as systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus; dermatologic diseases such as pemphigus; gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn’s disease and celiac disease; and immune-mediated endocrinologic disease type I diabetes mellitus. Guidance is provided on the transplantation technique, cell collection and processing, conditioning regimens, infections, and early and late complications. Key Features Outlines therapies and techniques for HSCT for autoimmune diseases Discusses the advantages of HSCT over conventional therapies Reviews the entire process of stem cell therapy from harvest and ethics to indications, efficacy, and regulatory oversight
One hypothesis suggested by our studies is that affective states represent a common pathway for many psychoimmunologic effects , whether associated with psychiatric disorders life stress . It also appears that multiple components of the ...
Author: Nicholas P. Plotnikoff
Publisher: CRC Press
Stress and Immunity introduces and updates the status of research on stress and immunity. Clinical aspects of stress and immunity are presented in the first 17 chapters and include discussions regarding the influence of depression disorders on immune functions and stress interrelationships with cancer, AIDS, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Herpes Simplex infections. There is also a review of physical exercise and immunity. The second half of the book is devoted to discussions regarding basic research being conducted in the field of stress and immunity. This includes discussions on the interrelationships of the central nervous system and the immune system and research on stress hormones (e.g., enkephalins, endorphins) as they interrelate with the immune system. In addition, animal models for the study of stress and immunity are discussed. Psychiatrists, neurologists, psychologists, clinical psychologists, internists, immunologists, and researchers in psychosomatic disorders should consider this an essential reference volume.
Components of innate immunity involved in immunomodulation are array of cells including natural killer (NK) cells, ... The role of chemokine has been well established in depression Alzheimer's disease (Rubio-Perez and Morillas-Ruiz, ...
Author: Maryam Sarwat
Publisher: Academic Press
Saffron: The Age-Old Panacea in a New Light is the first book to detail the functions and effect of saffron in medicinal situations. This book explores the medicinal aspects of saffron and the effect saffron imparts on various diseases of the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, locomotor system, urogenital system, eye, skin, and immune system, along with their mechanism of action. This perpetual bulb found mainly in Asia and Europe, Iran, India and Mediterranean countries has been shown to reduce seizures, delay convulsions, and as a neuroprotective agent against cerebral ischemia, brain damage, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In addition, it also reduces depression, hypnosis and anxiety and enhances learning and memory skills. Outlines the history of the medicinal use of saffron Provides details on the mechanism of action of saffron Explores the effect of saffron on specific aspects of the body
Some have postulated that immune system dysregulation may play a pathogenic role by impacting synapse development and refinemente. Others have argued that the co-occurrence of neuropsychiatric illness and immune system dysregulation may ...
Author: Michael S. Freemark
Publisher: Humana Press
This second edition of Freemark’s text embodies all of the strengths of the original work but is deeper and broader in scope, with new chapters on emerging themes including metabolomics, genomics, and the roles of gastrointestinal hormones, the microbiome, brown adipose tissue, and endocrine disruptors in the pathogenesis of childhood obesity. Reviews of the effects of weight excess on cognitive performance and immune function complement detailed analyses of the biochemical and molecular pathways controlling the development of childhood adiposity and metabolic disease. Critical assessments of nutritional interventions (including new chapters on infant feeding practices and vegetarian diets) and superb reviews of behavioral counseling, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery provide practical guidance for the management of overweight children. Penetrating analyses of the obesity epidemic in its social, cultural, economic, and political contexts highlight challenges and opportunities for obesity prevention and community action. The perspective is international in scope and reflects the expertise and experience of many of the leading figures in the field. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this new edition of Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment will be an invaluable guide for all healthcare providers and policy makers concerned with the evaluation and care of children with nutritional and metabolic disease and with the societal implications of the obesity epidemic.
A number of polymorphisms have been implicated in different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. Polymorphisms in neurological disorders with a central immune component are well described, mainly due to their role in increasing ...
Author: Mark I. Rees
Publisher: Academic Press
Published continuously since 1944, the Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology serial has been a continuous, essential resource for protein chemists. Covering reviews of methodology and research in all aspects of protein chemistry, including purification/expression, proteomics, modeling and structural determination and design, each volume brings forth new information about protocols and analysis of proteins while presenting the most recent findings from leading experts in a broad range of protein-related topics. This volume features articles on Challenges and Opportunities of Next-Generation Sequencing for Biomedical Research. Covers reviews of methodology and research in all aspects of protein chemistry Brings forth new information about protocols and analysis of proteins while presenting the most recent findings from leading experts in a broad range of protein-related topics
Other novel immunomodulators (e.g., interleukin 1 and interferon inhibitors) are also rational drug targets awaiting development/ design for MDD and other neuropsychiatric disorders with an immune component. Finally, after the initial ...
Author: Glen O. Gabbard
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
The definitive treatment textbook in psychiatry, this fifth edition of Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders has been thoroughly restructured to reflect the new DSM-5® categories, preserving its value as a state-of-the-art resource and increasing its utility in the field. The editors have produced a volume that is both comprehensive and concise, meeting the needs of clinicians who prefer a single, user-friendly volume. In the service of brevity, the book focuses on treatment over diagnostic considerations, and addresses both empirically-validated treatments and accumulated clinical wisdom where research is lacking. Noteworthy features include the following: Content is organized according to DSM-5® categories to make for rapid retrieval of relevant treatment information for the busy clinician. Outcome studies and expert opinion are presented in an accessible way to help the clinician know what treatment to use for which disorder, and how to tailor the treatment to the patient. Content is restricted to the major psychiatric conditions seen in clinical practice while leaving out less common conditions and those that have limited outcome research related to the disorder, resulting in a more streamlined and affordable text. Chapters are meticulously referenced and include dozens of tables, figures, and other illustrative features that enhance comprehension and recall. An authoritative resource for psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatric nurses, and an outstanding reference for students in the mental health professions, Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, Fifth Edition, will prove indispensable to clinicians seeking to provide excellent care while transitioning to a DSM-5® world.
soldiers before military deployment and assessed whether GR pathway components in leukocytes characterized ... owing to the small samples, these findings parallel previous findings of the role of immune-related genes in PTSD.
Author: J. Douglas Bremner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: From Neurobiology to Treatment presents a comprehensive look at this key neuropsychiatric disorder. The text examines the neurobiological basis of post-traumatic stress and how our understanding of the basic elements of the disease have informed and been translated into new and existing treatment options. The book begins with a section on animal models in posttraumatic stress disorder research, which has served as the basis of much of our neurobiological information. Chapters then delve into applications of the clinical neuroscience of posttraumatic stress disorder. The final part of the books explores treatments and how our basic and clinical research is now being converted into treatment. Taking a unique basic science to translational intervention approach, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: From Neurobiology to Treatment is an invaluable resource for researchers, students and clinicians dealing with this complex disorder.
With leukocytes making up the immune component of blood, focus has been cast on assessing gene expression changes within this subcategory of blood cells. However, even within this category, several cell types exist: neutrophils, ...
Author: Chris Turck
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Biomarkers hold immense promise for the early detection of disease. Unlike other disorders like diabetes and heart disease where a limited number of biological markers are at hand that allow the physician to come up with a reliable diagnosis, there are currently no such markers available for affective disorders. As in any other disease area a major goal is therefore the identification of early markers that can categorize subsets of subjects in a consistent manner. This will allow a more precise definition and categorization of affective disorders and in turn facilitate investigations of the pathogenesis of the diseases and enhance our ability for treatment. This edited volume will not only address the area of affective disorders but also other brain disorders that are neurological in nature, including Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer Disease.
Th17 and regulatory T cells, in autoimmune diseases including MS.7,8 B cells are also considered to be regular immune components in the early MS lesion by playing various roles such as releasing inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6, ...
Author: Tahira Farooqui
Publisher: Academic Press
Curcumin for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: Neurochemical and Pharmacological Properties focuses on the different molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated beneficial effects in neurological diseases. The book's editors discuss the neurochemical and pharmacological properties of curcumin, followed by the effect of curcumin in neurotraumatic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and neuropsychiatric diseases. The book also offers a perspective on future studies on the treatment of neurological disorders. The beneficial effects of curcumin have been observed both in cultured cells and in animal models, thus paving the way for ongoing present and future human clinical trials. Curcumin produces antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects not only by blocking oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurotraumatic and neurodegenerative diseases, but also by restoring cellular homeostasis and rebalancing redox equilibrium. Identifies molecular mechanisms of curcumin effects in neurological diseases Includes effects on neurotraumatic, neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases Covers the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of curcumin Examines curcumin’s potential in developing new therapeutic drugs