The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy

Since 1992, Kenya has conducted multiparty elections with the hope of promoting accountability and transparency in government. This is being undermined by ongoing corruption and an increasingly centralised state response to terrorism.

The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy

Why has democracy failed to reduce corruption in Kenya? Framing the challenge in game theoretical terms, Dominic Burbidge examines how mutual expectations between citizens dictate the success or failure of political reforms. Since 1992, Kenya has conducted multiparty elections with the hope of promoting accountability and transparency in government. This is being undermined by ongoing corruption and an increasingly centralised state response to terrorism. Providing a nuanced assessment of democracy’s difficult road in Kenya, Burbidge discusses the independent role being played by widespread social expectations of corruption. Through tracking average views of the average person, it is possible to identify a threshold beyond which society suffers mutually reinforcing negative social expectations. This trend is the shadow of Kenyan democracy, and must be treated as a policy challenge on its own terms before institutional reforms will be successful.

The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy

divide.5 Violence during elections is not new to Kenya's multiparty history,6 but the fear that accompanied the 2007/8 outbreak was constitutive of fresh despair over the likelihood that competitive democratic representation would ever ...

The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy

Why has democracy failed to reduce corruption in Kenya? Framing the challenge in game theoretical terms, Dominic Burbidge examines how mutual expectations between citizens dictate the success or failure of political reforms. Since 1992, Kenya has conducted multiparty elections with the hope of promoting accountability and transparency in government. This is being undermined by ongoing corruption and an increasingly centralised state response to terrorism. Providing a nuanced assessment of democracy’s difficult road in Kenya, Burbidge discusses the independent role being played by widespread social expectations of corruption. Through tracking average views of the average person, it is possible to identify a threshold beyond which society suffers mutually reinforcing negative social expectations. This trend is the shadow of Kenyan democracy, and must be treated as a policy challenge on its own terms before institutional reforms will be successful.

The Oxford Handbook of Kenyan Politics

The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy: Widespread Expectations of Widespread Corruption. Burlington, VT; Ashgate. Burbidge, D. (2019). An Experiment in Devolution: National Unity and the Deconstruction of the Kenyan State.

The Oxford Handbook of Kenyan Politics

Kenya is one of the most politically dynamic and influential countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Today, it is known in equal measure as a country that has experienced great highs and tragic lows. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenya was seen as a ''success story" of development in the periphery, and also led the way in terms of democratic breakthroughs in 2010 when a new constitution devolved power and placed new constraints on the president. However, the country has also made international headlines for the kind of political instability that occurs when electoral violence is expressed along ethnic lines, such as during the "Kenya crisis" of 2007/08 when over 1,000 people lost their lives and almost 700,000 were displaced. The Oxford Handbook of Kenyan Politics explains these developments and many more, drawing together 50 specially commissioned chapters by leading researchers. The chapters they have contributed address a range of essential topics including the legacy of colonial rule, ethnicity, land politics, devolution, the constitution, elections, democracy, foreign aid, the informal economy, civil society, human rights, the International Criminal Court, the growing influence of China, economic policy, electoral violence, and the impact of mobile phone technology. In addition to covering some of the most important debates about Kenyan politics, the volume provides an insightful overview of Kenyan history from 1930 to the present day and features a set of chapters that review the impact of devolution on regional politics in every part of the country.

Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence

with British trade union leaders and Labour MPs but also to stress the enormous problems in Kenya to the British public.35 ... and the realization ofindividual rights: “For these reasons I accept the political philosophy of democracy, ...

Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence

Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence explores the relationship between the human rights movement emerging after 1945 and the increasing violence of decolonization. Based on material previously inaccessible in the archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross and the United Nations Human Rights Commission, this comparative study uses the Mau Mau War (1952-1956) and the Algerian War (1954-1962) to examine the policies of two major imperial powers, Britain and France. Historian Fabian Klose considers the significance of declared states of emergency, counterinsurgency strategy, and the significance of humanitarian international law in both conflicts. Klose's findings from these previously confidential archives reveal the escalating violence and oppressive tactics used by the British and French military during these anticolonial conflicts in North and East Africa, where Western powers that promoted human rights in other areas of the world were opposed to the growing global acceptance of freedom, equality, self-determination, and other postwar ideals. Practices such as collective punishment, torture, and extrajudicial killings did lasting damage to international human rights efforts until the end of decolonization. Clearly argued and meticulously researched, Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence demonstrates the mutually impacting histories of international human rights and decolonization, expanding our understanding of political violence in human rights discourse.

Routledge Handbook of Democratization in Africa

The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy: Widespread Expectations of Widespread Corruption. Burlington: Ashgate. ———. Forthcoming. “Genuine Development: Reflections on Agency and Passivity.” In Human Dignity and the Practice of Human Development, ...

Routledge Handbook of Democratization in Africa

This volume explores the issues and debates surrounding the ongoing processes of democratization in sub-Saharan Africa, illuminating the central dynamics characterizing Africa’s democratic experiments, and considering the connections between democratization and economic, social, and cultural developments on the continent. Reflecting the diverse and rich nature of this field of study, the Handbook of Democratization in Africa features more than thirty contributions structured into six thematic sections: The politics and paths of regime development Institutional dynamics Political mobilization and voting dynamics The politics of identity Social forces from below The consequences of democracy. Chapters offer overviews of the key scholarship on particular topics, including central insights from the latest research, and provide suggestions for those interested in further inquiry. The material includes attention to broad cross-continental patterns, for example with respect to public opinion, political violence, or the role of different institutions and actors. It also includes rich case material, drawing on and highlighting the experiences of a diverse collection of countries. Encouraging a comprehensive view of key concerns and enhancing understanding of particular issues, the Handbook of Democratization in Africa represents a critical resource for experts and students of African politics, democratization, and African studies.

Corruption and Governance in Africa

The shadow of Kenyan democracy: Widespread expectations of widespread corruption. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing. Chebet, C. (2010, June 14). Corrupt ways of government officials. The Standard, p. 13. Chiefs of Mission in Kenya. (2014).

Corruption and Governance in Africa

This volume analyzes the corruption phenomenon in Africa and how to combat it from a governance perspective with illustrated case studies from three of the most corrupt of those nations covering, respectively, the Southern Africa region (Swaziland); the Eastern Africa region (Kenya); and the Western Africa region (Nigeria). Drawing on the available data, research literature, and field practice experience, the nature and extent of corruption are identified; the factors influencing the causes and determining the consequences of corruption are delineated; measures that have been put in place to control corruption are outlined and discussed; and new policy solutions are proposed and advocated to more effectively control the corruption menace in Africa.

Routledge Handbook of Development Ethics

Burbidge, D. (2015) The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy. Widespread Expectation of Widespread Corruption. Ashgate, Farnham. Calhoun, L. (2004) The Problem of 'Dirty Hands' and Corrupt Leadership. The Independent ReviewVII(3): 363–385.

Routledge Handbook of Development Ethics

The Routledge Handbook of Development Ethics provides readers with insight into the central questions of development ethics, the main approaches to answering them, and areas for future research. Over the past seventy years, it has been argued and increasingly accepted that worthwhile development cannot be reduced to economic growth. Rather, a number of other goals must be realised: • Enhancement of people's well-being • Equitable sharing in benefits of development • Empowerment to participate freely in development • Environmental sustainability • Promotion of human rights • Promotion of cultural freedom, consistent with human rights • Responsible conduct, including integrity over corruption Agreement that these are essential goals has also been accompanied by disagreements about how to conceptualize or apply them in different cases or contexts. Using these seven goals as an organizing principle, this handbook presents different approaches to achieving each one, drawing on academic literature, policy documents and practitioner experience. This international and multi-disciplinary handbook will be of great interest to development policy makers and program workers, students and scholars in development studies, public policy, international studies, applied ethics and other related disciplines.

Corruption Scandals and their Global Impacts

AfriMAP, 2015, Effectiveness of Anti-Corruption Agencies in East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. ... Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, Inc. Burbidge, D., 2015, The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy: Widespread Expectations of Widespread ...

Corruption Scandals and their Global Impacts

Corruption scandals receive significant press coverage and scrutiny from practitioners of global governance, and bilateral and multilateral donors. Across the globe, the annual publication of TI’s CPI and World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators elicits spirited denials and accusations of targeting, of neo-colonialism. Poor measures on corruption indices and the ensuing negative publicity can have serious consequences both externally, through a freeze or retraction of donor funding, and internally, through reducing the availability of public funds, and harming the credibility of serving governments and institutions. Corruption Scandals and their Global Impacts tracks several major corruption scandals across the world in a comparative analysis to assess the full impact of global corruption. Over the course of the book, the contributors deliberate the exposure and reporting of corruption scandals, demonstrate how corruption inhibits development on different levels and across different countries, the impact it has on the country in question, how citizens and authorities respond to corruption, and some local, regional and global policy and legislative measures to combat corruption. The chapters examine the transnational manifestation of corruption scandals around the world, from developed countries and regions such as the United States and the European Union, to BRIC countries Brazil and Russia, to developing countries such as Belarus, Jamaica, Kenya and Nigeria. In each case, chapters highlight the scandal, its impact, the local, regional and global responses, and the subsequent global perceptions of the country. Concluding with a review of the global impacts of corruption scandals, this book provides an important comparative analysis which will be useful to students and scholars of international development and politics, as well as to development practitioners, donors, politicians and policy makers.

Global Corruption from a Geographic Perspective

The shadow of Kenyan democracy: Widespread expectations of widespread corruption. London: Routledge. Bush, R. (2007). Sovereignty, democracy and Zimbabwe's tragedy. Review of African Political Economy, 29(29), 5–12. Cain, G. (2015).

Global Corruption from a Geographic Perspective

This monograph explores the nature of corruption around the world from a geographic perspective. It focuses on historical context and cultural factors. Readers will learn that though corruption is pervasive, geography greatly shapes its character. This book will offer a better understanding of the level of corrupt activity in any given country. The book analyzes an array of countries and regions. Coverage ranges from democratic societies, where corruption is low due to high rates of literacy and a free press, to the most corrupt places, where centralized power structures and lack of a free media allow corruption to unfold unimpeded. Anti-corruption campaigns and their effectiveness are also reflected upon. In addition to data from Transparency International, the text examines relevant political events. In each case, the analysis focuses on the major actors and institutions involved; the cultural norms that often regard corruption as a normal part of doing business; and the attempts by foreign and domestic actors to minimize corruption. This book will help readers better understand the causes and consequences of corruption, as well as its type and severity varies widely across the planet. It will appeal to students, researchers, policy makers, and interested general readers.

A Tapestry of African Histories

Branch, Between Hope and Despair, 217–21; Charles Hornsby, Kenya: A History Since Independence (London: I.B. Tauris, 2012), 291–92, 302, 506; Dominic Burbidge, The Shadow of Kenyan Democracy: Widespread Expectations of Widespread ...

A Tapestry of African Histories

This book studies African history through a geopolitically transcendent lens that brings African countries into conversation with other relevant histories both within and outside of the continent. The collection analyzes historical figures, struggles for independence and stability, social and economic development, and legal and human rights issues.

Kenya s Uncertain Democracy

Populism in Kenya has a long history in the struggle against colonialism and oneparty tyranny. Further, it served as the ideological wind that drove the movement for multiparty democracy in the 1990s. Like their global contemporaries, ...

Kenya s Uncertain Democracy

The plunging of Kenya, until recently a centre of stability and growth in East Africa, into political and economic uncertainty following the general election of December 2007 is regarded as a major cause for global and African concern. It is widely accepted that the elections were deeply flawed, and that there was electoral malfeasance by all the major players. President Kibaki's rapid declaration of victory in the face of a heavily disputed election and his determination to hold on to the levers of state power precipitated a deadly crisis, communal violence and economic decline. A power-sharing deal between Kibaki and Opposition leader, Raila Odinga signed in February seems to be holding, but Kenya ranks among the worlds’ growing number of democracies at-risk. This book takes a new look at the 2007 election, the post-election crisis, the underlying interaction of ethnicity, class and political power; forced displacement, the role of international forces; and the country’s power-sharing arrangement. The study will draw upon the expertise of a variety of leading experts on Kenya, and will be edited by Peter Kagwanja and Roger Southall. The overall project was based on a workshop in Nairobi on 6-7 December 2008. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of Contemporary African Studies.

Mobilizing for Democracy

... the manifesto of the Democratic Party (for which he was the shadow attorney general) for the design of government, ... Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the National Alliance Party of Kenya (NAK) – and the seductiveness of power at ...

Mobilizing for Democracy

Mobilizing for Democracy is an in-depth study into how ordinary citizens and their organizations mobilize to deepen democracy. Featuring a collection of new empirical case studies from Angola, Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa, this important new book illustrates how forms of political mobilization, such as protests, social participation, activism, litigation and lobbying, engage with the formal institutions of representative democracy in ways that are core to the development of democratic politics. No other volume has brought together examples from such a broad Southern spectrum and covering such a diversity of actors: rural and urban dwellers, transnational activists, religious groups, politicians and social leaders. The cases illuminate the crucial contribution that citizen mobilization makes to democratization and the building of state institutions, and reflect the uneasy relationship between citizens and the institutions that are designed to foster their political participation.

Gender Ethnicity and Violence in Kenya s Transitions to Democracy

On December 15, 1999 the Ufungamano Initiative, a clergy-led constitutional review process that included all other key stakeholders except KANU and its coalition partner, the National Democratic Party (NDP), was launched.

Gender  Ethnicity  and Violence in Kenya   s Transitions to Democracy

Gender, Ethnicity, and Violence in Kenya’s Transitions to Democracy: States of Violence examines gendered violence in the context of multiparty politics in Kenya, placing it in the historical milieu of colonial rule and its legacies of the ethnicization of both state and society. It offers an extensive account of the ways in which liberal democratic politics have produced violent outcomes for women./span

Digital Democracy Analogue Politics

The 2007 election created the conditions for Kenya's most seismic social and digital change. On 29 December 2007, Kenya began its descent into what would later be called its worst crisis in history, shattering its reputation as an ...

Digital Democracy  Analogue Politics

From the upheavals of recent national elections to the success of the #MyDressMyChoice feminist movement, digital platforms have already had a dramatic impact on political life in Kenya – one of the most electronically advanced countries in Africa. While the impact of the Digital Age on Western politics has been extensively debated, there is still little appreciation of how it has been felt in developing countries such as Kenya, where Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp and other online platforms are increasingly a part of everyday life. Written by a respected Kenyan activist and researcher at the forefront of political online struggles, this book presents a unique contribution to the debate on digital democracy. For traditionally marginalised groups, particularly women and people with disabilities, digital spaces have allowed Kenyans to build new communities which transcend old ethnic and gender divisions. But the picture is far from wholly positive. Digital Democracy, Analogue Politics explores the drastic efforts being made by elites to contain online activism, as well as how 'fake news', a failed digital vote-counting system and the incumbent president's recruitment of Cambridge Analytica contributed to tensions around the 2017 elections. Reframing digital democracy from the African perspective, Nyabola's ground-breaking work opens up new ways of understanding our current global online era.

Kenya National Assembly Official Record Hansard

I beg to support this Motion of Adjournment. First of all, being the Minister for Local Authorities in the Democratic Party of Kenya's Shadow Cabinet, I would like to congratulate all the Opposition political parties which are manning ...

Kenya National Assembly Official Record  Hansard

The official records of the proceedings of the Legislative Council of the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya, the House of Representatives of the Government of Kenya and the National Assembly of the Republic of Kenya.

Media Communication and the Struggle for Democratic Change

Countries Research of the MeCoDEM project focuses on four countries, each representing distinct constellations of democratic change and media ecologies: Egypt, Kenya, Serbia and South Africa. Egypt is a stalled transition following the ...

Media  Communication and the Struggle for Democratic Change

This book investigates the role of media and communication in processes of democratization in different political and cultural contexts. Struggles for democratic change are periods of intense contest over the transformation of citizenship and the reconfiguration of political power. These democratization conflicts are played out within an increasingly complex media ecology where traditional modes of communication merge with new digital networks, thus bringing about multiple platforms for journalists and political actors to promote and contest competing definitions of reality. The volume draws on extensive case study research in South Africa, Kenya, Egypt and Serbia to highlight the ambivalent role of the media as force for democratic change, citizen empowerment, and accountability, as well as driver of polarization, radicalization and manipulation.

Human Rights in Islamic North Africa

Fabian Klose, Human Rights in the Shadow of Colonial Violence: The Wars of Independence in Kenya and Algeria, ... U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices— Algeria, ...

Human Rights in Islamic North Africa

It is one thing to craft superb human rights tenets in a constitution and another to enforce such policies in practice. This book explores the contradictions between interpretations of constitutional tenets and the dogmas contained in the penal code of Islamic North Africa--particularly in regard to Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Provided are brief histories of each country that connect the colonial past to present-day human rights records. The author also suggests ways in which to mitigate human rights infractions to advance peaceful coexistence that could promote political and economic development.

African Democracy

Its Origins and Development in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania Thompson, Gardner. defined groups and parties'.109 The 'shadow of ethnicity' was to continue to infect Uganda's politics. It was said in the 1990s that, for the most part, ...

African Democracy

The concepts of democracy and good governance have been at the centre of criticism of governments all over the world. What democracy entails, however, has never been agreed, most notably on the African continent. African politicians who have been criticised for reigning over 'undemocratic' regimes have insisted that the West judges them by criteria that don't apply to African circumstances. Is there such a thing as African democracy? Informed and intrigued by two events that happened in different eras, in different countries, Gardner Thompson has written an in-depth historical examination of the nature of 'imported' democracy as practised in the East African countries of Uganda, where he worked as a young History teacher in the 70s, Kenya and Tanzania. The events were the 1971 Amin capture of power from Milton Obote in Uganda, and the post-election violence that rocked Kenya in 2007/2008, pitting then incumbent Mwai Kibaki against his erstwhile colleague Raila Odinga, along what many read to be tribal lines. Dividing the book into three sections, Thompson treats democracy in the three former colonies from the perspectives of pre-independence (colonialism), the transition to independence, and governance since independence. Reflecting indigenous history, the colonial past and evolving culture, flawed but functioning forms of government have emerged in the three states.

The Fate of Young Democracies

Again, we recognize that this may be a rosetinted picture of what is happening (all the more so as this is being written in the shadow of intertribal violence in Kenya), but we believe that democracy may have played some role in ...

The Fate of Young Democracies

The recent backlash against democracy in such countries as Bolivia, Venezuela, Russia, and Georgia poses renewed concerns about the viability of this regime type in the developing world. Drawing on a unique data set of every democratization episode since 1960, this book explores the underlying reasons for backsliding and reversal in the world's fledgling democracies and offers some proposals with respect to what the international community might do to help these states stay on track toward political stability. Rejecting earlier scholarship on this topic, Kapstein and Converse argue that the core of the problem is found in the weak institutions that have been built in much of the developing world, which encourage leaders to abuse their power. Understanding the underlying reasons for democratic failure is essential if we are to offer policy recommendations that have any hope of making a difference on the ground.

A Political Party Constitution the Solar Motion Party of Kenya SMPK

It provides the best party ideology,values,principles of minority gender and marginalized groups and physically disabled members inclusive participation in political parties management around the modern world of technology in uses of basic ...

A Political Party Constitution the Solar Motion Party of Kenya  SMPK

A new modern political party structure using technology for party meetings videoconferencing and teleconferencing for meetings using Facebook,Whatsapp,imo video systems,pixar technologies,wireless conference over satellite cloud computing and irtual systems,virtal machines in Government elections data,Emails and any other new disruptive technologies to deal with busy political leaders while on the move to Serve elections policy manifestos and Government programs. It provides the best party ideology,values,principles of minority gender and marginalized groups and physically disabled members inclusive participation in political parties management around the modern world of technology in uses of basic Freedoms human rights as per united nations Declaration on universal human rights.it captures the new levels of Government in most countries with new constitution like Kenya with 48 county structures of regional Governments with afederal pseudo administations with semi-autonomy run by forty seven(47) Governors with one thousand four hundred and fifty(1450) members of county assemblies under the new Devolution of power away from Dictatorial centralized presidential systems across the world.It is a good model Political party with practical steps and clearly set out procedures skillfully crafted to meet modern demands of complex politics .The structures and guidelines on gender and minorities mirrors how human rights are represented in the youthful political parties and many more politicians will adopt the new trending systems of democratic party elections shown in this eBook.Those running for political offices will find the nominations structures as illustrated in the rules and regulations in this book.This constitutional dream manifesto is the shadow Government formula for Kenya by The Solar Motion party of Kenya (SMPK) .Its very instructive and mentoring youth with a isionary direction to leadership excellence in politics and humanitarian or conflict rules for Non Government or private organizations where democratic leadership elections or direct political nominations play a key role in building countries to develop and prosper in the modern global economy.