Type VII U Boats

Left: Karl Diinitz, who did much to help establish the UBoat Service and was responsible for its direction during World War II. It was his drive and enthusiasm—in the face of bitter opposition at first from the 'big-gun' proponents ...

Type VII U Boats

The ‘ShipCraft’ series provides in-depth information about building and modifying model kits of famous warship types. Lavishly illustrated, each book takes the modeller through a brief history of the subject class, highlighting differences between sister-ships and changes in their appearance over their careers. This includes paint schemes and camouflage, featuring colour profiles and highly-detailed line drawings and scale plans. The modelling section reviews the strengths and weaknesses of available kits, lists commercial accessory sets for super-detailing of the ships, and provides hints on modifying and improving the basic kit. This is followed by an extensive photographic gallery of selected high-quality models in a variety of scales, and the book concludes with a section on research references – books, monographs, large-scale plans and websites. This volume is devoted to the largest class of submarines ever built, the Type VII, which formed the backbone of the German effort in the critical Battle of the Atlantic. A pre-war design, the Type VII was developed as the campaign progressed and was still in frontline service in 1945. All the major variants, as well as minor changes to equipment, are covered here. With its unparalleled level of visual information – paint schemes, models, line drawings and photographs – it is simply the best reference for any modelmaker setting out to build one of these famous boats.

U Boats at War in World War I and II

Vesikko was built in Finland in 1933, and was essentially a coastal submarine, 133 ft 10 in. long with three torpedoes, a small gun and a submerged displacement of 300 tons. Vesikko was essentially the prototype of the Type II U-boat, ...

U Boats at War in World War I and II

U Boats were the scourge of the seas for Allied shipping during both World Wars almost bringing Britain to the brink of starvation on several occasions. This book contains unseen photographs taken by German submarine crew and captains during each war.The World War One selection features a submariner's photos of U-25, an early German U-boat. They belonged to WO Friedrich Pohl who served on U-boats SM-25 and SMU-33. There are many photos of the U-boat itself, crew on deck and attacks on Norwegian merchant ships with the surface gun. U-25 was launched 12 July 1913, sank a total of 21 ships, 14,126 tons and surrendered to France 23 February 1919.The World War Two photos include images from an original WW2 U Boat commander's photo album. It belonged to Kapitan Leutnant Herbert Bruninghaus. As a U Boat navigator, he served on the famous U-38 under ace Heinrich Liebe. Herbert later went on to command three U Boats of his own - U-6, U-148 and U-1059. There are also original images from a Kriegmarine officer's photo album (unfortunately unnamed). It includes photos of Commander Prien's U-47 returning to Kiel after attacks at Scapa Flow.

Battle of the Atlantic 1939 41

The Germans used three major types of U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic between 1939 and 1941: Type II (in four variants), Type VII and Type IX. Additionally, they had several miscellaneous types: the Type IA, UA – a submarine built ...

Battle of the Atlantic 1939   41

At the start of World War II, few thought the U-boat would be as devastating as it proved to be. But convoys and sonar-equipped escorts proved inadequate to defend the Allies' merchantmen, and the RAF's only offensive weapon was the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft. For RAF Coastal Command, the first two years of the war were the hardest. Although starved of resources, operating with outdated aircraft and often useless weaponry, they were still the only force that could take the fight to the U-boats. But in these two years, the RAF learned what it needed to win the Battle of the Atlantic. Gradually developing new tactics and technology, such as airborne radar, signals intelligence, and effective weaponry, the Allies ended 1941 in a position to defeat Dönitz's growing fleet of U-boats. This book, the first of two volumes, explains the fascinating history of how the RAF kept the convoys alive against the odds, and developed the force that would prevail in the climactic battles of 1942 and 1943.

History of the U Boot

Type II Dubbed Einbaum (dugout canoe) by their crews, the U-boats were the first type II class submarines built for the Kriegsmarine after the First World War. While the old prototype I (who would eventually evolved in U-Boat from great ...

History of the U Boot

U-Boot is the German term to refer broadly to submarines, and is short for Unterseeboot, literally "submarine boat". The objectives of the U-boat campaigns in both wars were the convoys carrying supplies from the US to Europe. The term U-Boot, followed by a number, such as U-Boot 47 indicates a specific vessel, while U-Boot Type II a particular class, the only U-boats that can be considered true submarines, and submarines, are those that belong to the Type XXI and Type XXIII. During the Second World War, the attacks of the U-boats were the main component of the Battle of the North Eastern, which lasted until the end of the war. During the early stages of the war and immediately after the entry of the United States, the U-boats were extremely effective in the destruction of merchant allies. Improvements in tactical convoys, sonar, the depth charges, the deciphering of the Enigma code used by the Germans and the range of escort aircraft served to turn the fate against the U-boats. At the end of the U-boat fleet suffered extremely heavy losses, losing 789 units (three British submarines captured) of 1157 (of which 25 Allied captured) and about 30,000 sailors on a total of 50.000. The German U-boats and Japanese submarines and Italian sank around 2,828 Allied ships, for a total of about 15 million tons. Between 1939 and 1942 the U-boats also bombed the oil fields of Florida and Americans of many coastal areas causing extensive damage; when the British found a way to decipher Enigma allies were able to predict the movements, yet the Germans did not interrupt the use of U-boats in the Atlantic. During World War II, the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) produced different types of U-boats, as the technology improved. In this volume are indicated in detail the characteristics of all the classes of U-Boot, from Type I to Type XXIII, in addition to the history of the U-boats that made the protagonists during the Second World War.

The U Boat War

These became the Type II, Type VII and Type I respectively. Raeder finally gave the order to begin assembly of the first six Type II U-boats on 8 February 1935, and after years of covert building, the Kriegsmarine replaced the ...

The U Boat War

The accepted historical narrative of the Second World War predominantly assigns U-boats to the so-called 'Battle of the Atlantic', almost as if the struggle over convoys between the new world and the old can be viewed in isolation from simultaneous events on land and in the air. This has become an almost accepted error. The U-boats war did not exist solely between 1940 and 1943, nor did the Atlantic battle occur in seclusion from other theatres of action. The story of Germany's second U-boat war began on the first day of hostilities with Britain and France and ended with the final torpedo sinking on 7 May 1945. U-boats were active in nearly every theatre of operation in which the Wehrmacht served, and within all but the Southern Ocean. Moreover, these deployments were not undertaken in isolation from one another; instead they were frequently interconnected in what became an increasingly inefficient German naval strategy. This fascinating new book places each theatre of action in which U-boats were deployed into the broader context of the Second World War in its entirety while also studying the interdependence of the various geographic deployments. It illustrates the U-boats' often direct relationship with land, sea and aerial campaigns of both the Allied and Axis powers, dispels certain accepted mythologies, and reveals how the ultimate failure of the U-boats stemmed as much from chaotic German military and industrial mismanagement as it did from Allied advances in code-breaking and weaponry.

First U Boat Flotilla

Theoretical training included lessons in U-boat construction from the point of view of both sailor and engineer, ... An engine installation made up of half a Type II drive unit complete with submarine steering equipment completed the ...

First U Boat Flotilla

Lawrence Paterson is an author and historian.

U Boats at War in 100 Objects 1939 1945

In time he would rise to the rank of Oberleutnant and IWO (First Officer), responsible for controlling torpedo aiming during attacks and generally supporting the commander. 3: ThE TypE II U-BOAT 3: The Type II U-Boat.

U Boats at War in 100 Objects  1939   1945

‘The only thing that ever really frightened me during the war was the U-boat peril,’ wrote Winston Churchill in his history of the Second World War. ‘I was even more anxious about this battle than I had been about the glorious air fight called the Battle of Britain.” In reality, the Kriegsmarine had been woefully unprepared for the war into which it was thrown. The Command-in-Chief of submarines, Karl Dönitz, himself a verteran U-boat captain from the First World War, felt that he could bring Britain to its knees with a fleet of 300 U-Boats. But when war broke out, he had just twenty-four available for operational use. Despite this, the U-Boat arm scored some incredible successes in the early part of the war, raising the status of the submarine commanders and crews to that of national heroes in the eyes of the German people. The ‘Grey Wolves’ had become super-stars. Small wonder then that the U-Boat war has fascinated students of military history ever since. This book, using a carefully selected range of both wartime images and colour images of surviving U-boat memorabilia from private collections, describes 100 iconic elements of the U-Boat service and its campaigns. The array of objects include important individuals and the major U-Boat types, through to the uniforms and insignias the men wore. The weapons, equipment and technology used are explored, as are the conditions in which the U-boat crews served, from cooking facilities and general hygiene down to the crude toilet facilities. Importantly, the enemy that they faced is also covered, examining the ship-borne and airborne anti-submarine weaponry utilised against the U-boats. The U-Boats began the war, though small in number, more than a match for the Allies and created carnage amongst merchant shipping as well as sinking several major warships. The pace of technological development, however, failed to match that of Allied anti-submarine warfare weaponry and the U-Bootwaffe was ultimately doomed to defeat but not before, at one point, coming close to bringing Britain to its knees.

Anti Submarine Warfare

The Germans them- selves, pleased with the design, later used it as the basis for the first of the new U-boats, the type IA. The eventual type II also had a troubled gestation period. The Finnish Navy wanted a small submarine ...

Anti Submarine Warfare

The submarine was undoubtedly the most potent purely naval weapon of the twentieth century. In two world wars, enemy underwater campaigns were very nearly successful in thwarting Allied hopes of victory - indeed, annihilation of Japanese shipping by US Navy submarines is an indicator of what might have been. That the submarine was usually defeated is a hugely important story in naval history, yet this is the first book to treat the subject as a whole in a readable and accessible manner. It concerns individual heroism and devotion to duty, but also ingenuity, technical advances and originality of tactical thought. What developed was an endless battle between forces above and below the surface, where a successful innovation by one side eventually produces a counter-measure by the other in a lethal struggle for supremacy. Development was not a straight line: wrong ideas and assumptions led to defeat and disaster.

U Boat Attack Logs

“tit I The business end of a Type-VIIC boat showing two of its five torpedo tubes. ... These were fired from bow tubes (Tubes 1, II and III in the Type Us, with a Tube IV in the Type-I, Type-VII and TypeIX boats) and from the stern ...

U Boat Attack Logs

During the Second World War over 250 Allied warships from a dozen navies were sent to the bottom by German U-boats. This ground-breaking study provides a detailed analysis of every sinking for which source material survives from both the Allied and the German sides, resulting in detailed treatment of the fate of 110 vessels, with the remainder summarised in an extensive appendix. Uniquely, each entry is built around a specialist translation of the relevant segment of the war diary (log) of the U-boat in question, taken directly from the surviving originals – remarkably, this represents the first large-scale publication of the U-boat war diaries in any language. The book offers a wealth of new information, not only with respect to the circumstances of the sinkings from both the Allied and German perspectives, but also to the technical environment in which they lived as well as the fate of the crews. The entries include background details on the vessels concerned and the men involved, with a selection of rare and carefully chosen photos from archives and collections around the world. Each entry is itself a compelling narrative, but is backed with a list of sources consulted, including documents, published works and websites. A decade in the making, this is probably the most important book on the U-boat war to be published for many a year

Kriegsmarine U boats 1939 45 1

THE TYPE II The Type II was a natural enough progression from the UB coastal types of the Kaiserliche Marine in the First World War. Small, cheap and easy to build, they could be produced in a remarkably short time.

Kriegsmarine U boats 1939   45  1

This, the first of two volumes on Germany's World War II U-boats, traces their development from the early U-boats of the Kaiser's Navy, the prohibition on Germany having U-boats following the Armistice in 1918 and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles, the secret development of U-boats using a 'cover-firm' in Holland, culminating in the formation of the 1st U-boat Flotilla in 1935 with the modern Type II. The operational history section includes examples from the Classes Type VIIA, Type VIIB, VIID, VIIE and VIIF before concentrating on the mainstay of the U-boat arm, the Type VIIC. Comparisons are also made with the standard allied submarines, their strengths, weaknesses and U-boat tactics.

Submarine Operational Effectiveness in the 20th Century

A total of 50 Type II U-boats were built in what today we would call four different “flights”, by three separate German shipbuilding firms. Two were intended for sale to Yugoslavia, but were acquired by the German Navy instead.

Submarine Operational Effectiveness in the 20th Century

The submarine emerged as a serious weapons system during the First World War (1914 - 1918). During that conflict Germany with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign of 1917 nearly drove Great Britain to the negotiating table. Its U-boats sank 6,196 ships of 13,438,632 gross register tons. Despite post-war attempts to ban the submarine from warfare, it survived. Both Italy and Germany used submarines, covertly, during the Spanish Civil War (1936 - 1939). This book, Part Two of a series, discusses the use of submarines during World War Two (1939 - 1945) and their effectiveness. It focuses principally on two strategic submarine campaigns. The first is about German U-boats against British and neutral commerce. That campaign finally failed during the Battle of The Atlantic in 1943. The second deals with American submarines against Japanese shipping from Southeast Asia to the home islands, a campaign that successfully isolated Japan from its sources of raw materials and foodstuffs during 1944 and effectively defeated Japan.

Memoirs Ten Years and Twenty Days

In such circumstances, it is far better, for example, to build four 500 ton boats than one of 2,000 tons. In the summer of 1935 the Germany Navy had the following U-boats either already completed or under construction: 1. Twelve Type II ...

Memoirs Ten Years and Twenty Days

The story of the last world war, as told by Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz himself. His memoir covers his early career with submarines in the First World War and follows both his successes and failures through the Second World War, with great detail on the way the U-boat campaign was waged, as told by the man who invented U-boat tactics. Doenitz includes details of the U-boat campaigns during the Second World War as well as the opinions, ideas and commentary on the period. Of particular interest are the comments regarding British and American conduct during the war. An important social document, and an invaluable source for any student of the last war. He became the last Führer of Germany after Hitler's suicide in May 1945 and the book’s subtitle, Ten Years and Twenty Days, is a direct reference to the time Karl Doenitz spent in Spandau Prison having been convicted of war crimes following trial at Nuremberg.

Hitler s U Boat War

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Hitler s U Boat War

The second and final volume of the definitive account of the German submarine war. Acclaimed on its publication in 1997 ('should become the standard history of the Unterseeboote' - Washington Post) volume one of Clay Blair's magnum opus is here followed by volume two, The Hunted covering 1942-45. In this volume the fortunes of the German navy are completely reversed - due in no small part to Allied codebreaking - and they suffer perhaps the most devastating defeat of any of the Germany forces. destroying their submarine service entirely. Blair has been at work on this history for nine years since the British and American governments began to release official WWII records in the 1980s. Blair himself served in submarines in combat in WWII. He chronicles the U-Boat war with authority, fidelity, objectivity and extraordinary detail. He also writes vivid and dramatic scenes of naval actions and dispassionate, but startling new revelations, interpretations and conclusions about all aspects of the Battle of the Atlantic.

Otto Kretschmer

Kretschmer took command of the Type IIB U-boat U23 on the first day of October 1937. ... an added nine tons of fuel which nearly doubled the Type II's surfaced range from 1,000 nautical miles to 1,800 at an average speed of 8 knots.

Otto Kretschmer

Otto Kretschmer was only in combat from September 1939 until March 1941 but was Germany's highest-scoring U-boat commander sinking 47 ships totaling 274,333 tons. This definitive work details his personal story and the political backdrop from his earliest days. Aged 17 he spent 8 months studying literature at Exeter University where he learned to speak English fluently. The following year, on 1 April 1930, he enlisted as an officer candidate in the Weimar Republic's small navy. After completing his officer training and time on the training ship Niobe he served aboard the light cruiser Emden. In December 1934 he was transferred to the light cruiser Köln, then in January 1936 made the move to the fledgling U-boat service. His first operational posting was to the 2nd U-Flotilla’s Type VII U35 where he almost being drowned during training in the Baltic Sea! During the Spanish Civil War, he was involved in several patrols as part of the international nonintervention force. He was finally given command of U23, a post which he held until April 1940. He had already sunk 8 ships including the destroyer HMS Daring east of Pentland Firth on 18 February 1940. He demonstrated a cool approach to combat: his mantra ‘one torpedo for one ship’ proved that the best way for his boat to succeed against a convoy was to remain surfaced as much as possible, penetrating the convoy and using the boat’s high speed and small silhouette to avoid retaliation. His nickname ‘Silent Otto’ referred to his ability to remain undetected and his reluctance to provide the regular radio reports required by Dönitz: he had guessed that the Allies had broken German codes. Alongside his military skill was a character that remained rooted in the traditions of the Prussian military. While other U-boat commanders and crew returned from patrol with beards and a relaxed demeanor, U99 always returned with all men clean-shaven and paraded on deck. In the Bowmanville POW camp he organized a 2-way radio link to the German Naval High Command and planned a mass breakout with a U-boat rendezvous arranged. He was also instrumental in the ‘Battle of Bowmanville’ that lasted for 3 days in October 1942. His antics behind the wire became the inspiration for the 1970 film ‘The McKenzie Break’. Postwar he answered the call for volunteers upon the establishment of the Bundesmarine. He retired from the rank of Flotillenadmiral in 1970. He suffered a fall celebrating his 50th wedding anniversary aboard a boat and died two days later at the age of 86.

Second U Boat Flotilla

The two U-boats sailed from Wilhelmshaven on 11 January 1937; their trip later deemed a success by both commanders ... By November 1938 four more U-boat flotillas had been established: 'Lohs' and 'Emsmann', composed of Type II U-boats, ...

Second U Boat Flotilla

Fritz-Julius Lemp's tragic sinking of the Athenia in a Second U-Boat Flotilla boat opened Germany's U-boat war against England. The following six years of bitter combat found the flotilla at the forefront of distant operations. Leading the attack, Legendary commanders such as Albrecht Achilles, Werner Hartenstein and Reinhard Hardegen littered the Atlantic and Indian Oceans with the twisted steel of sunken ships. Drawn extensively from various war diaries and veterans' personal reminiscences, the Second U-Boat Flotilla describes the tumultuous fortunes of the most successful unit of Karl Donitz's Grey Wolves.

The Gathering Storm

HAVING CONCLUDED A SERIES of U-boat exercises in the Baltic in June 1939, Dönitz asked for leave after a period of hard ... From seventeen boats on 21 August (fourteen Type II and three Type VII) the number of U-boats in the Baltic was ...

The Gathering Storm

“A top-of-the-line examination of operations in north European waters during the first eight months of [WWII] . . . by far the best work on that subject.”—Stone & Stone The term “the phony war” is often applied to the first months of the Second World War, a term suggesting inaction or passivity. That may have been the perception of the war on land, but at sea it was very different. This new book is a superb survey of the fierce naval struggles, from 1939 up to the invasion of Norway in April 1940. The author begins the book with the sinking of the German fleet at Scapa Flow in 1919 and then covers the rebuilding of the Kriegsmarine and parallel developments in the Royal Navy and summarizes relevant advances in European navies. The main part of the book then describes the actions at sea starting with the fall of Poland. There is a complex, intertwined narrative that follows. The sinking of Courageous, the German mining of the British East Coast, the Northern Patrol, the sinking of Rawalpindi, small ship operations in the North Sea and German Bight, the Altmark incident are all covered. Further afield the author deals with the German surface raiders and looks at the early stages of the submarine war in the Atlantic. As with his previous books, Geirr Haarr has researched extensively in German, British, and other archives, and the work is intended to paint a balanced and detailed picture of this significant period of the war when the opposing naval forces were adapting to a form of naval warfare quite different to that experienced in WWI.

Hitler s Navy

These early designs were the direct precursors to the Type I, Type II and Type VII U-boats used by the Kriegsmarine. Following his resignation in 1943, he held the honourary position of Admiral Inspector Although the nascent U-boat arm ...

Hitler s Navy

A complete illustrated study of the German Kriegsmarine throughout World War II. Hamstrung at first by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, during the 1930s, the German Navy underwent a programme of rearmament in defiance of the restrictions, building modern warships under limitations which forced technological innovation. Submarines were strictly prohibited by the treaty, and yet, following years of covert development, they became one of the Kriegsmarine's most deadly weapons. Blooded in the Spanish Civil War, the surface ships of the Kriegsmarine went on to play a crucial role in the opening salvoes of World War II during the invasions of Poland and Norway, although serious losses here set back plans for the invasion of Britain, and by the end of the war, only a handful of surface vessels remained to be divided up among the Allies. From the beginning of the war, but especially after the fall of France, the dreaded and extraordinarily successful U-boats stalked the Atlantic, threatening vital British shipping convoys and choking off the lifeline of munitions and supply from the US. Once Italy and Japan entered the war, German naval operations expanded to the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. This highly illustrated volume is a comprehensive study of the German Navy throughout the war, from pocket battleships to torpedo boats.

Hitler s Attack U Boats

Metox: A long-wave radar detector that used the Biscay Cross before U-boats were fitted with a new circular type of ... Supply U-boat also known as Seekuh. ... Nordsee~enten: 'North Sea Ducks' an early nickname for Type II U-boats.

Hitler s Attack U Boats

The success of German submarines during the First World War in almost cutting off Britain’s vital imports had not been forgotten by Adolf Hitler and when, in March 1935, he repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, Britain, magnanimously, signed up to an Anglo-German Naval Agreement. This allowed the Germans to build their submarine strength up to one third of the British Royal Navy’s tonnage. When war broke out in 1939, German U-boats went quickly into action, but with only four years of production and development, the main armament of these submarines was considerably weaker than equivalent boats in other navies and many of the other main features, such as living and the fighting conditions, were also significantly inferior. Nevertheless, the German U-boat onslaught against British merchant ships during the autumn of 1940 was highly successful because the attacks were made on the surface at night and from such close range that a single torpedo would sink a ship. Soon, though, Allied technology was able to detect U-boats at night, and new convoy techniques, combined with powerfully-armed, fast modern aircraft searching the seas, meant that by 1941 it was clear that Germany was losing the war at sea. Something had to be done. The new generation of attack U-boats that had been introduced since Hitler came to power needed urgent improvement. This is the story of the Types II, VII and IX that had already become the ‘workhorse’ of the Kriegsmarine’s submarine fleet and continued to put out to sea to attack Allied shipping right up to the end of the war. The Type II was a small coastal boat that struggled to reach the Atlantic; the Type VII was perfectly at home there, but lacked the technology to tackle well protected convoys; whilst the Type IX was a long-range variety that was modified so that it could operate in the Indian Ocean. In this latest book by the renowned Kriegsmarine historian Jak Mallmann Showell, these attack U-boats are explored at length. This includes details of their armament, capabilities, crew facilities, and just what is was like to operate such a vessel, and of course the story of their development and operational history.

Battle of the Atlantic 1942 45

The climax of World War II's greatest naval campaign Mark Lardas ... The 740-ton oceangoing U-boat is a Type XI, the 517-ton the Type VII and the 250-ton coastal the Type II (withdrawn from the Atlantic by 1942). U-boat variants and the ...

Battle of the Atlantic 1942   45

This illustrated study explores, in detail, the climactic events of the Battle of the Atlantic, and how air power proved to be the Allies' most important submarine-killer in one of the most bitterly fought naval campaigns of World War II. As 1942 opened, both Nazi Germany and the Allies were ready for the climactic battles of the Atlantic to begin. Germany had 91 operational U-boats, and over 150 in training or trials. Production for 1942–44 was planned to exceed 200 boats annually. Karl Dönitz, running the Kriegsmarine's U-boat arm, would finally have the numbers needed to run the tonnage war he wanted against the Allies. Meanwhile, the British had, at last, assembled the solution to the U-boat peril. Its weapons and detection systems had improved to the stage that maritime patrol aircraft could launch deadly attacks on U-boats day and night. Airborne radar, Leigh lights, Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) and the Fido homing torpedo all turned the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft into a submarine-killer, while shore and ship-based technologies such as high-frequency direction finding and signals intelligence could now help aircraft find enemy U-boats. Following its entry into the war in 1941, the United States had also thrown its industrial muscle behind the campaign, supplying VLR Liberator bombers to the RAF and escort carriers to the Royal Navy. The US Navy also operated anti-submarine patrol blimps and VLR aircraft in the southern and western Atlantic, and sent its own escort carriers to guard convoys. This book, the second of two volumes, explores the climactic events of the Battle of the Atlantic, and reveals how air power – both maritime patrol aircraft and carrier aircraft – ultimately proved to be the Allies' most important weapon in one of the most bitterly fought naval campaigns of World War II.

Naval Warfare 1919 45

Over the next few days four more U-boats were sent forth on the same mission. By 1 September Dönitz had deployed seventeen of his smaller Type II U-boats in the North Sea, had ten Type VII and six Type VIIB vessels in ...

Naval Warfare 1919 45

Naval Warfare 1919–45 is a comprehensive history of the war at sea from the end of the Great War to the end of World War Two. Showing the bewildering nature and complexity of the war facing those charged with fighting it around the world, this book ranges far and wide: sweeping across all naval theatres and those powers performing major, as well as minor, roles within them. Armed with the latest material from an extensive set of sources, Malcolm H. Murfett has written an absorbing as well as a comprehensive reference work. He demonstrates that superior equipment and the best intelligence, ominous power and systematic planning, vast finance and suitable training are often simply not enough in themselves to guarantee the successful outcome of a particular encounter at sea. Sometimes the narrow difference between victory and defeat hinges on those infinite variables: the individual’s performance under acute pressure and sheer luck. Naval Warfare 1919–45 is an analytical and interpretive study which is an accessible and fascinating read both for students and for interested members of the general public.