The World s First Railway System

CONSTRUCTING A COUNTERFACTUAL: BASIC REQUIREMENTS Counterfactuals are widely used in economic history. If it is asked 'Why was the railway system the way it was?' the answer is 'Because it was not the way that it might have been'.

The World s First Railway System

The British railway network was a monument to Victorian private enterprise. Its masterpieces of civil engineering were emulated around the world. But its performance was controversial: praised for promoting a high density of lines, it was also criticised for wasteful duplication of routes. This is the first history of the British railway system written from a modern economic perspective. It uses conterfactual analysis to construct an alternaive network to represent the most efficient alternative rail network that could have been constructed given what was known at the time - the first time this has been done. It reveals how weaknesses in regulation and defects in government policy resulted in enormous inefficiency in the Victorian system that Britain lives with today. British railway companies developed into powerful regional monopolies, which then contested each other's territories. When denied access to existing lines in rival territories, they built duplicate lines instead. Plans for an integrated national system, sponsored by William Gladstone, were blocked by Members of Parliament because of a perceived conflict with the local interests they represented. Each town wanted more railways than its neighbours, and so too many lines were built. The costs of these surplus lines led ultimately to higher fares and freight charges, which impaired the performance of the economy. The book will be the definitive source of reference for those interested in the economic history of the British railway system. It makes use of a major new historical source, deposited railway plans, integrates transport and local history through its regional analysis of the railway system, and provides a comprehensive, classified bibliography.

The World s First Railway System

This text presents a history of the British railway system written from a modern economic perspective.

The World s First Railway System

This text presents a history of the British railway system written from a modern economic perspective. It uses counterfactual analysis to construct an alternative network to represent the most efficient alternative rail network that could have been constructed given what was known at the time.

The North Eastern Railway in the First World War

Other railways were also absorbed over the years, including the world's first public railway, the Stockton & Darlington Railway. By 1914 the railway's system stretched from east Yorkshire in the south to the Scottish border in the north ...

The North Eastern Railway in the First World War

The North Eastern Railway underwent extreme change after the outbreak of war in August 1914. Within months, the company raised its own battalion of men and was the only railway company to do so. The NER also set to work adapting to the changes and requirements the war would bring. Not only would there be a drop in regular passenger traffic levels and increase in freight, transporting both war material and troops, but the workshops formerly used to build locomotives were turned over to making weapons of war. In December 1914, the railway came under attack from the Imperial German Navy, causing damage to the NER's infrastructure and killing several of its men. As the war went on, locomotives and rolling stock were sent to France to help with the enormous logistics required for operations on the Western Front. The planned opening of an electrified railway line for freight went ahead with a brand new fleet of powerful electric locomotives, adding to the company's portfolio of electrification with the electrified Tyneside passenger line and Newcastle Quayside. NER land was used to build an enormous munitions factory at Darlington and the unprecedented use of women in the work place meant traditionally male-only roles were increasingly seeing women take over and freeing men for military service.Overseas, men of the NER that joined the forces served with honour, but many were not to come home. The North Eastern Railway in the First World War tells the story of one railway's war, of how it continued to operate and adapt, and the men and women who served with the company or left to fight for the country's freedom.

Emerging Digital Forensics Applications for Crime Detection Prevention and Security

Mark Casson is Professor of Economics and Director of the Centre for Institutional Performance. His recent books include The Multinational Enterprise Revisited (with Peter Buckley, 2009), The World 's First Railway System (2009), ...

Emerging Digital Forensics Applications for Crime Detection  Prevention  and Security

The revolutionary way in which modern technologies have enabled us to exchange information with ease has led to the emergence of interdisciplinary research in digital forensics and investigations, which aims to combat the abuses of computer technologies. Emerging Digital Forensics Applications for Crime Detection, Prevention, and Security presents various digital crime and forensic disciplines that use electronic devices and software for crime prevention and detection. This book provides theoretical and empirical research articles and case studies for a broad range of academic readers as well as professionals, industry consultants, and practitioners involved in the use, design, and development of techniques related to digital forensics and investigation.

Railways in the Netherlands

This book traces the origin, growth, decline, and resurrection of the railway system of the Netherlands from its beginnings to privatization in the 1990s, and places its history in the context of the political and socioeconomic development ...

Railways in the Netherlands

This book traces the origin, growth, decline, and resurrection of the railway system of the Netherlands from its beginnings to privatization in the 1990s, and places its history in the context of the political and socioeconomic development of the country. At first, the largely agrarian and mercantile Dutch society saw little use for such a novel system of transportation, thanks to a highly developed system of roads and waterways. However, the success of early English railways did not go unnoticed, and in 1834 a plan was developed for a railway from Amsterdam to the Prussian Ruhr area to replace the transportation system along the Rhine River. Although this initial plan was finally abandoned, other lines were opened in 1839. The technology was largely borrowed from England and Belgium, but from the outset Dutch engineers played an important role in the development of the network. Apart from a short-lived state system, the first railways were built and operated by private companies, but when this did not result in an efficient network, the state stepped in again in 1860 to bring coherence. By 1900, the national network was complete, but labor unrest escalated, leading to the national strike of 1903, which reverberated for many years in the Dutch Parliament, railroad board rooms, and socialist political parties. The exigencies of World War I increased the grip of the state on the railways, which ultimately resulted in 1938 in the complete unification of the railways, albeit under public ownership. In the 1920s and 1930s, competition from other forms of transportation resulted in a curtailing of services and the closing of unprofitable lines. World War II devastated the Dutch railway system and necessitated an almost complete rebuilding. In the postwar era, population growth, greater mobility, pollution problems, and lack of space for new highways led to an intensive use of existing railways and the construction of new lines to link new suburbs and airports with the existing network. The privatization craze of the 1990s separated the ownership of the network from its operations, but the final relationship has yet to be established.

Great Western Railway A History

retaining the broad gauge, but it seems unlikely Brunel or Gooch would have remained with the company. ... If the Liverpool & Manchester Railway was the world's first inter-city railway then the Great Western Main Line from London to ...

Great Western Railway  A History

God’s Wonderful Railway”, it was called if you were a fan; the “great Way Round” if you took a rather more jaundiced view of some of its circuitous branch lines. But 175 years after its foundation, the Great Western Railway company is remembered with the most nostalgia, even love, of all Britain’s pre-nationalisation railway companies. It built, and ran, the great main line from London to the West Country and Cornwall (today’s First Great Western franchise). It was engineered by the greatest of them all, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who built such wonders as the Box Tunnel and the Saltash bridge. Its steam locomotives were designed by great men like Churchward and Hawkesworth. But also it had wonderful stations like the soaring Paddington and Bristol Temple Meads, as well as innumerable idyllic country halts with little more than a pagoda shelter and a couple of milk churns awaiting collection. Its engines were painted a deep green, its carriages chocolate and cream. Its Cornish Riviera Express train, and the line alongside the beach at Dawlish sprayed by the waves, became the stuff of legend. Now Andy Roden has written the first comprehensive history of the GWR for 20 years, to tie in with its 175th anniversary. It will appeal to everyone who bought his Flying Scotsman or Christian Wolmar’s railway histories.

I Tried to Run a Railway

The sequence of events left the British public ambivalent: pride in the world's first railway system combined with a sceptical, if not downright hostile attitude towards railway promoters and railway directors. But by that time they had ...

I Tried to Run a Railway

'BR rebel chairman resigns' The Guardian. 'Rebel rail chief in row' Daily Mail. 'I don't take it back says sacked rail chief' Daily Express. This is the notorious book that got Gerard Fiennes sacked from British Railways while he was Chairman and General Manager of the Eastern Region in 1968. Fiennes became a railwayman by accident, joining the L.N.E.R as a Traffic Apprentice in 1928. Over the next four decades he worked himself up to the top of management tree, experiencing all facets of railway life – steam through diesel to electrification – on his way to the top. When he got there, he knew the service was ripe for a revolution... and he believed he was the man to lead it. But of course, it was the wrong time for a manager who thought that railways could be a success – Dr. Beeching was sharpening his axe and unprofitable lines were closed rather than turned round. After being resisted, circumvented, delayed and blocked, G. F. Fiennes ran out of patience and put pen to paper and ran his career into the buffers as he told the story of what happens when non-railwaymen tried to run the railway.

The Railway King

This was the first public railway worked by steam and it set the pattern for the development of railway systems across the world. Enthusiasts will point out that the Loughborough and Nanpantan line, opened in 1788, was the world's first ...

The Railway King

George Hudson - the eponymous Railway King - started his career with a stroke of luck, inheriting £27,000 (a fortune in 1827) from a distant relative. He invested successfully in the North Midland Railway, then formed his own Midland Railway, raising £5 million and bribing MPs along the way. But from his glory in 1845 he fell into disgrace, admitting corruption and selling land he did not own. He was eventually imprisoned in York Castle and died a broken man in 1871. His story provides an excellent insight into nineteenth-century politics and industrial progress, full of moral dilemmas and a testimony to the growth of the railways in Britain - a timely subject.

Railway Photographic Advertising in Britain 1900 1939

David Smith, The Railway and Its Passengers: A Social History (Newton Abbott: David & Charles, 1988); Schivelbusch, ... Freeman, Railways and the Victorian Imagination, 217; Mark Casson, The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, ...

Railway Photographic Advertising in Britain  1900 1939

This book explores the phenomenal resources dedicated to understanding and encouraging passengers to consume travel from 1900 to 1939, analysing how place and travel were presented for sale. Using the Great Western Railway as a chief case study, as well as a range of its competitors both on and off the rails, Alexander Medcalf unravels the complex and ever-changing processes behind corporate sales communications. This volume analyses exactly how the company pictured passengers in the countryside, at the seaside, in the urban landscape and in the company’s vehicles. This thematic approach brings transport and business history thoroughly in line with tourism and leisure history as well as studies in visual culture.

Women and the Railway 1850 1915

... and in Europe and America, Wolmar, Blood, Iron, and Gold; on economic enterprise and regulation of the railway network in Victorian England, Mark Casson's The World's First Railway System; and for a critical tour of railway art, ...

Women and the Railway  1850 1915

Examines cultural representations of women's experience of the railway in a period of heightened mobility Women's experiences of locomotion during a period of increased physical mobility and urbanisation are explored in this monograph. The 5 chapters analyse Victorian and early Modernist texts which concentrate on women in transit by train, including Wilkie Collins's No Name, George Meredith's Diana of the Crossways, Elizabeth Gaskell's North and South, Henry James's The Spoils of Poynton and The Wings of the Dove, and stories by Rhoda Broughton, Margaret Oliphant, Charles Dickens and Katherine Mansfield. They highlight the tension between women's boundless physical, emotional, and sexual aspiration - often depicted as closely related to the freedom and speed of train travel - and Victorian gender ideology which constructed the spaces of the railway as geographies of fear or manipulation. Key features: The first full-length examination of texts by and about women which explore the railway as a gendered space within a British and European context Explores a variety of cultural discourses which deal with women and the railway: fiction, poetry, news stories and commentaries, essays, paintings, and philosophical writings Proposes a reconceptualization of the public/private binary

History of the World in 500 Railway Journeys

Sarah Baxter. WOLLATON WAGONWAY MIDDLETON RAILWAY ... It refers to the Wollaton Wagonway – the world's first overground railway. ... The line measures just 1 mile (1.6km), from the suburb of Hunslet into the city of Leeds. But in 1758 ...

History of the World in 500 Railway Journeys

History is everywhere, and is never as complete as when it can be accessed on a part of history itself. The locomotive is one of the great steps in progress of civilisation that undoubtably connects us to land and history that was shaped by the machine itself. Although a basic form of railway, or rutway, did exist in Ancient Greek and Roman times – notably the ship trackway between Diolkos and the Isthmus of Corinth around 600 BC – it would take several thousand years before the first fare-paying passenger service was launched in the early nineteenth century. Some two hundred years on, it is possible to travel by train to some of the world's most remote and remarkable destinations, and track the many wonderful legacies of the Earth's extensive history – man-made and otherwise. From prehistoric rock formations to skyscraper cities, slow steam engines to high-speed bullet trains, let A History of the World in 500 Railway Journeys be your guide. Through its beautifully illustrated pages, and 500 awe-inspiring railway journeys, you can chart your own transcontinental itinerary through time. Chug through canyons, steam past ancient monuments, speed through cities, luxuriate in the railcars of presidents and queens, or make express connections between key historical moments or epic eras, A History of the World in 500 Railway Journeys has it all. A must-read for travellers, railfans and history buffs alike, offering inspiration and information in equal measure.

Across the Borders

This book provides a wide introduction to how financiers, governments and entrepreneurs in Europe managed to face the challenges of constructing and maintaining an integrated railway network, both in their own countries and their colonies.

Across the Borders

Until now we have only had relatively narrow economic studies comparing investments in railways with investments in other fields of individual economies. 'Across the Borders' not only opens the door for fundamental new insights into a trans-national view of railway history, but also contributes to a breakthrough in the wider study of the subject, providing the first extensive historical investigation of the worldwide system of railway financing. This book provides a wide introduction to how financiers, governments and entrepreneurs in Europe managed to face the challenges of constructing and maintaining an integrated railway network, both in their own countries and their colonies. This volume offers analysis from a selection of experts exploring the trans-national investment policies of railway construction based on numerous historical case-studies. The chapters provide insight into the international opportunities that existed for railway financing, from the perspective of economic, social, transport and railway history. With contributions from authors from 19 countries the volume is a truly international work that will be of interest to academic researchers, museum staff, archivists, and anyone who has an interest in the history and development of railways.

Board of Trade Journal

An article upon the development and extension of the various railway systems in the world has recently appeared in the ... At this time the Netherlands made its first appearance as a railwayusing country with 11 miles of line , Russia ...

Board of Trade Journal


Development Challenges South South Solutions February 2013 Issue

Medical tourism is considered one of the fastest-growing sectors in the world. Estimates place it as a market worth US $100 billion. ... The world's first urban underground railway system was built in 19th-century London, England.

Development Challenges  South South Solutions  February 2013 Issue

Development Challenges, South-South Solutions is the monthly e-newsletter of the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation in UNDP (www.southerninnovator.org). It has been published every month since 2006. Its sister publication, Southern Innovator magazine, has been published since 2011. Contact the Office to receive a copy of the new global magazine Southern Innovator. Issues 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are out now and are about innovators in mobile phones and information technology, youth and entrepreneurship, agribusiness and food security, cities and urbanization and waste and recycling. Why not consider sponsoring or advertising in an issue of Southern Innovator? Or work with us on an insert or supplement of interest to our readers? Follow @SouthSouth1.

Fred Dibnah s Victorian Heroes

Thanks to railway pioneers such as Richard Trevithick, William Hedley, Timothy Hackworth and George Stephenson, Britain saw the development of the first steam locomotives and the world's first railways. With the opening of the line ...

Fred Dibnah s Victorian Heroes

Fred Dibnah was a man born out of his time. His era should have been the 'magnificent age of British engineering' - the nineteenth century - and his heroes were the great industrial engineers of the period whose prolific innovations and dedicated work ethic inspired a national mood of optimism and captured the hearts of the British public. Fred Dibnah's Victorian Heroes tells the stories of some of these men - including George and Robert Stephenson, Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Joseph Whitworth - and what it was that made them such inspirational figures to Fred. What were their backgrounds? Where did their drive and vision come from? What sort of people were they at work and at home? And what was their contribution to the history of industry and engineering? Most of them - like Fred - were colourful, larger-than-life characters for whom no challenge was too great. Taking these fascinating characters as inspiration, Fred Dibnah's Victorian Heroes gets to the very heart of what allowed nineteenth-century Britannia to rule the waves . . .

Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics Second Edition

Since Japan industrialised the world's first highspeed railway in 1964 with a speed of 210 km/h, high-speed trains ... At the beginning of the twenty-first century, China began to develop its high-speed railway system and independently ...

Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics  Second Edition

Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics, Second Edition, provides expanded, fully updated coverage of railway vehicle dynamics. With chapters by international experts, this work surveys the main areas of rolling stock and locomotive dynamics. Through mathematical analysis and numerous practical examples, it builds a deep understanding of the wheel-rail interface, suspension and suspension component design, simulation and testing of electrical and mechanical systems, and interaction with the surrounding infrastructure, and noise and vibration. Topics added in the Second Edition include magnetic levitation, rail vehicle aerodynamics, and advances in traction and braking for full trains and individual vehicles.

Railway Transportation Systems

In 1881, Werner von Siemens opened its first electric tram line in the world at Lichterfelde near Berlin. In 1883, Magnus Volk constructed an Electric Railway (Volk's Electric Railway) along the east coast in Brighton, England.

Railway Transportation Systems

Incorporates More Than 25 Years of Research and ExperienceRailway Transportation Systems: Design, Construction and Operation presents a comprehensive overview of railway passenger and freight transport systems, from design through to construction and operation. It covers the range of railway passenger systems, from conventional and high speed inter

India s Railway History

... were chuffing along stretches of track in anticipation of the official opening of the first railway in India, ... the Indian sub-continent providing India with the world's fourth-largest railway system measured by route length.

India s Railway History

This handbook provides an indispensable reference guide to most aspects of the history of India’s railways. The secondary literature is surveyed, primary sources identified, statistical and cartographic data discussed, and a massive bibliography made available.

Tracing Your Railway Ancestors

combined mechanical system of signalling, point operation, telegraph and block control was developed but only introduced throughout the British railway system after the Regulation of Railways Act was passed in 1889. The first ...

Tracing Your Railway Ancestors

Di Drummond's concise and informative guide to Britain's railways will be absorbing reading for anyone who wants to learn about the history of the industry and for family history researchers who want to find out about the careers of their railway ancestors. In a clear and accessible way she guides readers through the social, technical and economic aspects of the story. She describes in vivid detail the rapid growth, maturity and long decline of the railways from the earliest days in the late-eighteenth century to privatization in the 1990s. In the process she covers the themes and issues that family historians, local historians and railway enthusiasts will need to understand in order to pursue their research. A sequence of short, fact-filled chapters gives an all-round view of the development of the railwaysIn addition to tracing the birth and growth of the original railway companies, she portrays the types of work that railwaymen did and pays particular attention to the railway world in which they spent their working lives. The tasks they undertook, the special skills they had to learn, the conditions they worked in, the organization and hierarchy of the railway companies, and the make-up of railway unions - all these elements in the history of the railways are covered. She also introduces the reader to the variety of records that are available for genealogical research - staff records and registers, publications, census returns, biographies and autobiographies, and the rest of the extensive literature devoted to the railway industry.

Handbook on Railway Regulation

HISTORY. From the beginning, the US railway system has been based on the privately financed construction of lines whose ... created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), probably the world's first “independent regulatory commission.

Handbook on Railway Regulation

Taking a global approach, this insightful Handbook brings together leading researchers to provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in railway regulation with a particular focus on countries that rely heavily on railways for transportation links. The Handbook also considers the most pressing issues for those working in and with railway systems, and outlines future trends in the development of rail globally.