Tissue Specific Toxicity

This volume provides an up-to-date review of the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Individual chapters deal with specific aspects of toxicity problems associated with selected organs.

Tissue Specific Toxicity

This volume provides an up-to-date review of the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Individual chapters deal with specific aspects of toxicity problems associated with selected organs. Contains a review of contemporary knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of toxicity as applied to various organs Contrasts with other volumes in dealing with the mechanistic approach to the subject Discusses selected organs in separate chapters

Target Organ Toxicity

First published in 1986: This two-volume set provides essential information on the general princi-ples of target organ toxicity.

Target Organ Toxicity

First published in 1986: This two-volume set provides essential information on the general princi-ples of target organ toxicity. Pharmacokinetics, metabolic activation and key defense mechanisms, excretion, species variation, and tissue-specific biochemistry are explored comprehensively. These general principles are then illustrated using specific examples of toxicity to different target organs and systems. DNA modifi-cation and repair in tumor induction, and specificity in tumor initiation are also examined. Of primary interest to toxicologist, pharma-cologists, biochemists, and environmental toxicologists.

Target Organ Toxicity

I. INTRODUCTION In this chapter an attempt will be made to discuss the importance of tissue - specific biochemistry in determining the target organ for a toxic chemical . This will not be a review of the biochemical basis for tissue ...

Target Organ Toxicity

This two-volume set provides essential information on the general princi-ples of target organ toxicity. Pharmacokinetics, metabolic activation and key defense mechanisms, excretion, species variation, and tissue-specific biochemistry are explored comprehensively. These general principles are then illustrated using specific examples of toxicity to different target organs and systems. DNA modifi-cation and repair in tumor induction, and specificity in tumor initiation are also examined. Of primary interest to toxicologist, pharma-cologists, biochemists, and environmental toxicologists.

Target Organ Toxicity

First published in 1986: The purpose of these volumes is to provide a valuable reference for established investigators and postgraduate students in toxicology.

Target Organ Toxicity

First published in 1986: The purpose of these volumes is to provide a valuable reference for established investigators and postgraduate students in toxicology.

Target Organ Toxicity Volumes I and II

This two-volume set provides essential information on the general principles of target organ toxicity.

Target Organ Toxicity  Volumes I and II

This two-volume set provides essential information on the general principles of target organ toxicity. Pharmacokinetics, metabolic activation and key defense mechanisms, excretion, species variation, and tissue-specific biochemistry are explored comprehensively. These general principles are then illustrated using specific examples of toxicity to different target organs and systems. DNA modification and repair in tumor induction, and specificity in tumor initiation are also examined. Of primary interest to toxicologist, pharmacologists, biochemists, and environmental toxicologists.

Target Organ Toxicity

I. INTRODUCTION In this chapter an attempt will be made to discuss the importance of tissue-specific biochemistry in determining the target organ for a toxic chemical. This will not be a review of the biochemical basis for ...

Target Organ Toxicity

First published in 1986: The purpose of this 2 volume set is to provide a valuable reference for established investigators and postgraduate students in toxicology.

Biochemical Testing of Potentially Hazardous Chemicals for Toxicity Using Mammalian Liver Cell Cultures

The objective of the work was to eliminate the use of long-term more costly animal models to assess chemical toxicity.

Biochemical Testing of Potentially Hazardous Chemicals for Toxicity Using Mammalian Liver Cell Cultures

This proposal dealt with the testing of selected chemicals for their possible toxic effects on humans through the use of established mouse (HEPA-2) and human (HEP-G2) liver cell lines. The objective of the work was to eliminate the use of long-term more costly animal models to assess chemical toxicity. These established liver cell lines were chosen or use in this project because they are well characterized biochemically, and continue to express many of the normal functions carried out by the liver. The human HEP-G2 cells are known to secrete 17 different major plasma proteins into the culture medium. The HEPA-2 mouse cells are known to synthesize and to secrete albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, transferrin, ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin while being cultured. Most of the proposed work dealt with the activation of specific detoxifying enzymes of the liver that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. On the other hand, not all hepatotoxins induce these enzyme systems while causing various forms of alteration in the hepatocytes. Therefore, alterations in the expression of the liver-specific functions listed above. Biochemical testing; Toxic chemicals; Mammalian liver cells; Tissue-specific functions; HepatotoxicitY; RA 3 Cytotoxicity; Mouse cell line HEPA-2; Human celline HEP-G2.

Triggers for Higher Order Toxicity Testing

Strategies for selecting chemicals for definitive, higher order toxicology tests are important because physical and personnel resources are limited and chemicals vary widely in the need for testing.

Triggers for Higher Order Toxicity Testing

Strategies for selecting chemicals for definitive, higher order toxicology tests are important because physical and personnel resources are limited and chemicals vary widely in the need for testing. The National Toxicology Program has developed strategies for selection of chemicals for definitive tests in several are as of toxicology. In addition to the number of people, the extent of human exposure, structure-activity considerations, and reports of observations in humans, specific triggers are sought from animal studies and short-term tests or invitro screening that impact the chemical selection process and the design of definitive studies. Specific triggers in reproductive toxicology, for example, include observations in prechronic toxicology studies in rats and mice: weights and histopathologic examinations of reproductive organs, measurements of sperm production and function in males, and estrus cyclicity in females. Comparable tissue-specific triggers do not exist for developmental toxicity studies, and screening tests are not widely used for screening priorities for the conduct of definitive developmental toxicology studies.

Tissue Specific Responses of Crassostrea Virginica Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles

Two common concerns regarding nanoparticle toxicology are whether or not metal nanoparticle toxicity can be predicted based on toxicity of the parent metal, and how effects of nanoparticles on organisms may differ based on the route of ...

Tissue Specific Responses of Crassostrea Virginica Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles

Two common concerns regarding nanoparticle toxicology are whether or not metal nanoparticle toxicity can be predicted based on toxicity of the parent metal, and how effects of nanoparticles on organisms may differ based on the route of exposure, either water- or air- borne or dietary . A primary goal of this study was to investigate silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and to compare these results to those of dissolved Ag exposures. Oysters were exposed to varying concentrations of AgNPs prepared with different coatings (citrate and PVP) for 48 hours, then sacrificed and dissected. Lipid peroxidation (LPx) was measured in gill and hepatopancreas tissues as an indicator of oxidative damage, and antioxidant responses, glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also measured, as well as total protein. Results indicated that gill tissues were generally more prone to oxidative damage following dissolved Ag exposures than AgNP exposures, while hepatopancreas tissues were more sensitive following AgNP exposures. Total protein levels per gram wet mass increased in hepatopancreas tissues following both citrate- and PVP-coated AgNP exposures, but not dissolved Ag exposures. Another goal of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure route (dietary vs. water-borne) on accumulation of AgNPs. Oysters were exposed to AgNPs for 48 hours via seawater or AgNP-spiked food (algae). Tissue Ag concentrations and lipid peroxidation were measured in gill and hepatopancreas tissues, revealing that accumulation of Ag was generally greater when AgNPs were administered in aqueous solution rather than using food as a vector. These studies contribute to the growing knowledge regarding potential nanoparticle toxicity in estuarine ecosystems.

Tissue Specific Vascular Endothelial Signals and Vector Targeting

The field of genetics is rapidly evolving, and new medical breakthroughs are occurring as a result of advances in knowledge gained from genetics research.

Tissue Specific Vascular Endothelial Signals and Vector Targeting

The field of genetics is rapidly evolving, and new medical breakthroughs are occurring as a result of advances in knowledge gained from genetics research. This serial continually publishes important reviews of the broadest interest to geneticists and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Includes important reviews of the broadest interest to geneticists and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines, providing researchers an overview and synthesis of the latest findings in the area Presents up-to-date research from leaders in the field

Mammalian Toxicology

Mammalian Toxicology surveys chemical agents and examines how such chemicals impact on human health, emphasizing the importance in minimizing environmental exposure to chemical and physical hazards in our homes, communities and workplaces ...

Mammalian Toxicology

Mammalian Toxicology surveys chemical agents and examines how such chemicals impact on human health, emphasizing the importance in minimizing environmental exposure to chemical and physical hazards in our homes, communities and workplaces through such media as contaminated water, soil and air. Starting with the basic principles on a wide range of toxic agents, this textbook describes how they enter the body, their mechanisms of action once inside, and strategies for diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Topics covered include: General principles of toxicology: pharmacological and toxicological principles underpinning the study of toxicology, risk assessments and mechanisms of cell death Disposition: routes of chemical exposures, entry into the body and various tissues, storage, metabolic biotransformation and elimination, with examples from various toxicants. Toxic agents: the occurrences, disposition in the body, health effects, toxic mechanisms, antidotes and treatments of a range of agents including pesticides, metals, solvents, gases, nanomaterials, food components and additives, pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, natural toxins, endocrine disruptors, radiation, and warfare weapons. Toxic effects: including neurotoxicity, developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity, teratogenecity, male and female reproductive toxicity, mutagenecity, carcinogenicity, pulmonary toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity Toxicology and society: epidemiological studies of chemical-induced diseases in human populations, and a vision for toxicology in the 21st century. Mammalian Toxicology is an essential primer for students of toxicology, biochemistry, biology, medicine and chemistry. It is also appropriate for professional toxicologists in research or regulatory affairs, and anyone who needs to understand the adverse effects of toxic agents on the human body.

Sulfhydryl Compounds Advances in Research and Application 2012 Edition

The Tissue-Specific Toxicity of Methimazole in the Mouse Olfactory Mucosa Is Partly Mediated through Target-Tissue ... “The antithyroid drug methimazole (MMZ) can cause severe, tissuespecific toxicity in mouse olfactory mucosa (OM), ...

Sulfhydryl Compounds   Advances in Research and Application  2012 Edition

Sulfhydryl Compounds—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Sulfhydryl Compounds. The editors have built Sulfhydryl Compounds—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Sulfhydryl Compounds in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Sulfhydryl Compounds—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Nanocarriers for Organ Specific and Localized Drug Delivery

The goal of this chapter was to compile the organ-specific toxicity of nanomaterials that could be found in the ... The smaller size of NPs, as well as their high specificity for the tissue system, allow them to easily penetrate the ...

Nanocarriers for Organ Specific and Localized Drug Delivery

Organ-specific drug delivery is aimed at achieving increased concentration of therapeutic molecules at target sites with minimum side effects on other healthy tissues. Similarly, drug-specific delivery to some vital organs, such as the brain, lungs, heart and kidneys remains a challenging task for the formulation scientists. Oral delivery of most of the commercially available life-saving drugs has also been impeded by various physio-chemical and biological barriers. These advancements in nanotechnology have led to the development of various pharmaceutical nanocarriers. Nanocarriers for Organ-Specific and Localized Drug Delivery summarizes targeted drug delivery systems and approaches to the major organs of the body. The book shows how drugs can be specifically targeted to the pathological area within an organ in a viable way. Employing pharmaceutical nanocarriers for drug delivery targeted to specific organs of the body requires a comprehensive knowledge of the disease site’s pathophysiology as well as physical, chemical and pharmaceutical techniques for modification or functionalization of the nanocarriers. Combining theoretical principles and practical applications of various nanocarriers for organ-specific drug delivery, this is an important reference source for all those seeking to increase their understanding of how pharmaceutical nanocarriers are being used to create more efficient drug delivery systems. Outlines the underlying principles for the design of advanced pharmaceutical nanocarriers for organ specific drug delivery Includes guidance on how to exploit the pathophysiology and microenvironment of the diseased sites for targeted drug delivery Assesses the major challenges for creating pharmaceutical nanocarriers on a mass scale

Hospital Formulary

James B. Dougherty Associate Chairman of Clinical Affairs Department of Medicine Memorial Sloan - Kettering Cancer Center 6 s it possible to deliver effective antitumor therapy without subjecting normal tissue to toxicity ?

Hospital Formulary


Risk Assessment of Chemicals An Introduction

It could be argued that these more specific forms of toxicity testing are more important for the non- lethal toxic effects and for chronic toxicity. Depending on the aim of the study either basal cytotoxicity or organ or tissue-specific ...

Risk Assessment of Chemicals  An Introduction

At last – a second edition of this hugely important text that reflects the progress and experience gained in the last decade and aims at providing background and training material for a new generation of risk assessors. The authors offer an introduction to risk assessment of chemicals as well as basic background information on sources, emissions, distribution and fate processes for the estimation of exposure of plant and animal species in the environment and humans exposed via the environment, consumer products, and at the workplace. The coverage describes the basic principles and methods of risk assessment within their legislative frameworks (EU, USA, Japan and Canada).

Nanotoxicology

Since the first publication of this book in 2007, the field of nanoscience and nanomedicine continues to grow substantially.

Nanotoxicology

Since the first publication of this book in 2007, the field of nanoscience and nanomedicine continues to grow substantially. This second edition, Nanotoxicology: Progress toward Nanomedicine, enlists internationally recognized experts to document the continuing development and rationale for the safe design of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). This includes new improved characterization endpoints, screening, and detection methods for in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing. These tools also contribute greatly to nanosafety research applied to nanomedicines. Topics include The impacts of nanotechnology on biomedicine, including functionalization for tissue-specific targeting, the biointeractions of multifunctional nanoparticle-based therapy, and the ability to control specific physicochemical properties of nanoparticles The requirements for proper detection, measurement, and assessment both for workplace exposure and in consumer products—with a focus on potential health and safety implications Predictive modeling, using quantitative nanostructure activity relationships to predict the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials in the body Specific methodologies, imaging, and techniques to assess nanomaterials from the manufacturing process to nanomedicine applications Tools for assessing nanoparticle toxicity and the limitations of detection methods for assessing toxicity in both in vivo and in vitro systems and at the single cell and tissue levels Toxicity of nanomaterials to specific organ systems, cell–based targeting to tumors, and other biomedical applications The difficulty of conducting risk assessments and the need for addressing knowledge gaps, especially with long-term studies A roadmap for future research The development of nanotechnology-based products must be complemented with appropriate validated methods to assess, monitor, manage, and reduce the potential risks of ENM to human health and the environment. This volume provides a cogent survey of advances in this area by a well-respected and diverse group of international scientists.

Drug Safety Evaluation

This practical guide presents a road map for safety assessment as an integral part of the development of new drugs and therapeutics.

Drug Safety Evaluation

This practical guide presents a road map for safety assessment as an integral part of the development of new drugs and therapeutics. Helps readers solve scientific, technical, and regulatory issues in preclinical safety assessment and early clinical drug development Explains scientific and philosophical bases for evaluation of specific concerns – including local tissue tolerance, target organ toxicity and carcinogenicity, developmental toxicity, immunogenicity, and immunotoxicity Covers the development of new small and large molecules, generics, 505(b)(2) route NDAs, and biosimilars Revises material to reflect new drug products (small synthetic, large proteins and cells, and tissues), harmonized global and national regulations, and new technologies for safety evaluation Adds almost 20% new and thoroughly updates existing content from the last edition

Metabolic Activation and Toxicity of Chemical Agents to Lung Tissue and Cells

This volume reflects the extent of these developments and provides a state-of-the art reference in a rapidly evolving field incorporating both drug metabolism and pulmonary toxicology research.

Metabolic Activation and Toxicity of Chemical Agents to Lung Tissue and Cells

Research has shown that the lung is capable of metabolically activating xenobiotics into intermediates that can covalently bind to pulmonary tissue. Further, it has been shown that the lung consists of many distinct cell types with the ability to take up and sequester metabolically unchanged drugs and chemicals that are ultimately toxic in effect. This volume reflects the extent of these developments and provides a state-of-the art reference in a rapidly evolving field incorporating both drug metabolism and pulmonary toxicology research.

Human Stem Cell Toxicology

This book informs and champions the continued development of innovative technologies to predict the TSC toxicity of compounds before their use, whether in patients or the environment, by addressing emerging new cell-based approaches and ...

Human Stem Cell Toxicology

Toxicity against tissue stem cells (TSCs) is a major problem in drug development and environmental health science. Despite their essential function in all human cellular tissues, the nature of tissue stem cells is not fully understood. The small fraction of stem cells in tissues and the lack of specific biomarkers for their quantification present a formidable challenge to developing tools for their study and assays that can identify stem cell-toxic agents. Human Stem Cell Toxicology reveals TSC toxicity as a biomedical reality that is now well under siege by newly emerging ideas and technologies, despite these challenges. Chapters consider stem cell toxicity by environmental agents, pharmaceutical drug candidates, and marketed therapeutic medicines with adverse side effects. New insights to cellular, molecular, biochemical, and chemical mechanisms of human tissue stem cell toxicity are brought together. Experimental and theoretical treatments are of specific topics, including approaches to monitoring TSC function, newly discovered TSC types and TSC toxicity resistance mechanisms, are covered by expert authors. This book informs and champions the continued development of innovative technologies to predict the TSC toxicity of compounds before their use, whether in patients or the environment, by addressing emerging new cell-based approaches and concepts for technical innovation. This publication will be a useful reference for postgraduate students and researchers working in toxicology, pharmaceutical science, tissue cell biology and stem cell biology.