Toleration as Recognition

Galeotti proposes an alternative, toleration as recognition, which addresses the problem of according equal respect to groups as well as equal liberty to individuals.

Toleration as Recognition

Anna Elisabetta Galeotti examines the most intractable problems which toleration encounters and argues that what is really at stake is not religious or moral disagreement but the unequal status of different social groups. Liberal theories of toleration fail to grasp this and consequently come up with normative solutions that are inadequate when confronted with controversial cases. Galeotti proposes an alternative, toleration as recognition, which addresses the problem of according equal respect to groups as well as equal liberty to individuals.

Toleration Respect and Recognition in Education

If recognition really is encompassing in this sense, recognition isnot onlyin tension with toleration, but is implausibleeven considered in isolation.So any plausible theory of multicultural recognition mustbespecified ina way thatdoes ...

Toleration  Respect and Recognition in Education

Toleration, Respect and Recognition in Education brings together a collection of papers examining the complexity of different interpretations of toleration, respect and recognition in education. Discusses different theories of toleration and shows how it lies at the centre of a liberal pluralistic society Brings together the work of leading scholars from a range of disciplines Examines how education can accommodate diversity and promote shared public values

Issues in Political Theory

A final point: toleration as recognition implies reasons for toleration that differ from those of the liberal approach, and this makes toleration symbolically significant in a different way. From a literal point of view, toleration ...

Issues in Political Theory

This political theory textbook invites students to apply the concepts they encounter to real world politics. Each chapter includes a 2,000 word case study to highlight the theories that have been discussed.

The Politics and Ethics of Toleration

The problem of affirmative tolerance in a Multicultural society from an ethical point of view. Ratio Juris, 10(2), 199–212. Balint, P. (2017). ... The range of toleration: From toleration as recognition back to disrespectful tolerance.

The Politics and Ethics of Toleration

Toleration plays a key role in liberal thought. This book explores our current understanding of toleration in liberal theory and practice. Toleration has traditionally been characterized as the willingness to put up with others or their actions or practices despite the fact that one considers them as objectionable. Toleration has thus been regarded as one of the core aspects of liberalism: as an indispensable democratic virtue and as a constitutive part of liberal political practice. In modern liberal societies, where deep disagreements about social values and ways of life are widespread, toleration still seems to be of crucial importance. However, contemporary debates on toleration cover an immense variety of theoretical and political issues ranging from controversies over its exact understanding and conceptual scope as well as its practical boundaries, e.g., regarding freedom of expression or the legitimate role of religious symbols in educational institutions. The contributions to this volume take up a number of carefully selected key questions and problems emerging from these ongoing theoretical and political controversies in order to explore and shed new light on pivotal conflicts and tensions that pervade different conceptions of toleration. The chapters in this book were originally published in the Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy.

Recognition

Taylor closes his essay on recognition withanargument for greater openness to the value of othercultures and their ... Toleration always involves negative attitudes: if I do not disapprove of someone, then the question of toleration ...

Recognition

A tension between the desire to be respected as an equal and the desire to distinguish oneself as a unique person lies at the heart of the modern social order. Everyone cares about recognition: no one wants to be treated with disrespect, insulted, humiliated, or simply ignored. This basic motivation drives the ‘politics of recognition’ which we see in those struggles for inclusion and equality in relation to gender, ethnicity, race and sexuality and which seek to affirm the public value of these particular identities. In this compelling new book Cillian McBride argues that the notion of recognition is not merely confined to these struggles, but has a long history, from ancient ethical ideals centred on the achievement of honour and glory, to Enlightenment ideals of human dignity and equality. He explores the politics of cultural rights and recognition, the conflict between dignity and esteem, the role of shame and stigma in systems of social control and punishment, the prospects for a just society in which everyone receives the recognition they deserve, and the way in which we come to be independent, self-determining persons through negotiating the networks of social recognition we inhabit. Recognition will be essential reading for students in philosophy and political theory, and any general readers interested in trying to understand and evaluate the role of recognition in the modern world.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education

Of course, some practices that are defended on grounds of toleration or recognition may be indefensible. Tolerating or recognizing the equal value of a cultural practice such as female genital mutilation when it is a form of torture ...

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education

A general introduction to key issues in the philosophy of education. The chapters are accessible to readers with no prior exposure to philosophy of education, and provide both surveys of the general domain they address, and advance the discussion in those domains.

The Culture of Toleration in Diverse Societies

Although less directly critical of the Rawlsian position , the other essays in the first part of this volume pursue the discussion of toleration and recognition along the more positive line suggested by Matravers and Mendus , by linking ...

The Culture of Toleration in Diverse Societies

Although the idea of toleration has been widely explored, there isreluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates ontoleration have when compared with those in the early modern period andwith subsequent discussions about pluralism and freedom of expression.In this book, a group of distinguished authors explore thecomplexities emerging from the new debate. They reflect thecross-thematic and cross-disciplinary nature of such discussions,dissecting a number of debates such as liberalism and communitarianism,public and private, multiculturalism and the politics of identity.Specific issues considered include religious discrimination inemployment, city life and community, social ethos, and reason andethics.

Secularization Desecularization and Toleration

In Indulgence and Toleration, Owen approaches the same idea from another angle. ... identification is more likely to come from those believe that tolerance is a form of bigotry and that we should move toward recognition in its place.

Secularization  Desecularization  and Toleration

This book challenges the modern myth that tolerance grows as societies become less religious. The myth inseparably links the progress of toleration to the secularization of modern society. This volume scrutinizes this grand narrative theoretically and empirically, and proposes alternative accounts of the varied relationships between diverse interpretations of religion and secularity and multiple secularizations, desecularizations, and forms of toleration. The authors show how both secular and religious orthodoxies inform toleration and persecution, and how secularizations and desecularizations engender repressive or pluralistic regimes. Ultimately, the book offers an agency-focused perspective which links the variation in toleration and persecution to the actors of secularization and desecularization and their cultural programs.

Should a Liberal State Ban the Burqa

Instead, for Galeotti, tolerance demands official recognition of minority cultural practices. ... In her book Toleration as Recognition (2002) Galeotti begins by noting that the traditional liberal idea of tolerance as non-interference ...

Should a Liberal State Ban the Burqa

Debates about whether the Wahhabist practice of face-veiling for women should be banned in modern liberal states tend to generate more heat than light. This book brings clarity to what can be a confusing subject by disentangling the different strands of the problem and breaking through the accusations of misogyny and Islamophobia. Explaining and expounding the ideas of giants of the liberal tradition including Locke, Mill, and Rawls as well as contemporary thinkers like Nussbaum, Kymlicka and Oshana, the book considers a variety of conceptions of liberalism and how they affect the response to the question. Directly addressing issues facing many of today's societies, it unpicks whether paternalism on grounds of welfare can be justified within liberalism, the value of personal autonomy and the problem of whether a socially influenced choice counts as a genuine preference. Covering the role of multiculturalism, gender issues and feminism, this comprehensive philosophical study of a major political question gets to the heart of whether a ban could be justified in principle, and also questions whether any such ban could prove efficacious in achieving its end.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Theory

of toleration towards cultural practices, especially those oppressive of women and children (Okin 1998; Nussbaum 1999; Shachar 2000). Does toleration as recognition face these controversial issues any better and more smoothly than other ...

The Oxford Handbook of Political Theory

Long recognized as one of the main branches of political science, political theory has in recent years burgeoned in many different directions. Close textual analysis of historical texts sits alongside more analytical work on the nature and normative grounds of political values. Continental and post-modern influences jostle with ones from economics, history, sociology, and the law. Feminist concerns with embodiment make us look at old problems in new ways, and challenges of new technologies open whole new vistas for political theory. This Handbook provides comprehensive and critical coverage of the lively and contested field of political theory, and will help set the agenda for the field for years to come. Forty-five chapters by distinguished political theorists look at the state of the field, where it has been in the recent past, and where it is likely to go in future. They examine political theory's edges as well as its core, the globalizing context of the field, and the challenges presented by social, economic, and technological changes.

Space and Pluralism

When discussing toleration in the urban realm a crucial question is whether we have to consider it as neutrality or as recognition (or respect).3 In the liberal “neutralist” vision of toleration the idea is that everyone is free to ...

Space and Pluralism

This book addresses the social, functional and symbolic dimensions of urban space in today's world. The twelve essays are grouped in three parts, ranging from a conceptual framework to case descriptions rich with illustrations. They provide a valuable service in exploring the nature and significance of social space and particular aspects of its contemporary distribution and contestation. The book addresses a topic that is intrinsically interdisciplinary. Questions of space are examined from a rich variety of disciplinary perspectives in a welcome range from urban planning to political philosophy, shedding a good deal of light in the process. The issues in focus include the dichotomies of public and private space, discussion of rights and duties with regard to the use of space, or conflicts over its allocation. Well reasoned and presented discussion is offered from the perspective of basic values and rights. The policy issue of institutional recognition of the specifics of (minority community) identity is raised in opposition to abstract distributive accounts of justice.

Tolerance

Galeotti, Toleration as Recognition, p. 105. “Declaration of Principles on Tolerance,” Article 2.1. ... Tolerance, Locke famously argued, is “agreeable to the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and to the genuine reason of mankind.

Tolerance

In Tolerance, Lars Tønder offers a thought-provoking theory on what tolerance means in pluralistic societies. Tønder begins by showing the limitations of the way democratic theory currently understands tolerance: either as a form of restraint or as benevolence, but always divorced from what it is that the tolerant person really senses. According to Tønder, what is missing from current theories of tolerance is the idea of pain, or the lived experience of what it means to become tolerant. Introducing what he calls a "sensorial orientation to politics" and a "theory of active tolerance," he argues that the act of becoming tolerant (and the reasoning it entails) depends on sensing the world in an expansive manner attentive to the new and unforeseen. In order to illustrate, he engages with a number of theorists, from Seneca, Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty, and Marcuse to Locke, Kant and Mill, and he draws upon a wide range of examples, including the 2005 controversy over the Danish cartoons of Muhammad, Sacher-Masoch's Venus in Furs, Dave Chappelle's comedy, and methods of torture used in the war on terror. Tolerance is at once a sweeping account of the history of political thought and an invitation to rethink the meaning of tolerance within the sensorial conditions that define twenty first century democratic politics.

An Argument for Same Sex Marriage

“Thus it is not toleration as recognition that implies a positive moral evaluation and promotion of homosexuality, but, rather, it is the usual view of toleration which works to discourage homosexuality” (Galeotti 2002, 176; ...

An Argument for Same Sex Marriage

The relationship between religious belief and sexuality as personal attributes exhibits some provocative comparisons. Despite the nonestablishment of religion in the United States and the constitutional guarantee of free exercise, Christianity functions as the religious and moral standard in America. Ethical views that do not fit within this consensus often go unrecognized as moral values. Similarly, in the realm of sexual orientation, heterosexuality is seen as the yardstick by which sexual practices are measured. The notion that "alternative" sexual practices like homosexuality could possess ethical significance is often overlooked or ignored. In her new book, An Argument for Same-Sex Marriage, political scientist Emily Gill draws an extended comparison between religious belief and sexuality, both central components of one’s personal identity. Using the religion clause of the First Amendment as a foundation, Gill contends that, just as US law and policy ensure that citizens may express religious beliefs as they see fit, it should also ensure that citizens may marry as they see fit. Civil marriage, according to Gill, is a public institution, and the exclusion of some couples from a state institution is a public expression of civic inequality. An Argument for Same-Sex Marriage is a passionate and timely treatment of the various arguments for and against same-sex marriage and how those arguments reflect our collective sense of morality and civic equality. It will appeal to readers who have an interest in gay and lesbian studies, political theory, constitutional law, and the role of religion in the contemporary United States.

Democracy and Diversity

Toleration as recognition . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Galeotti , A. E. ( 2015 ). The range of toleration: From toleration as recognition back to disrespectful tolerance . Philosophy and Social Criticism , 41,93–110 .

Democracy and Diversity

The chapters in this book deal with different, though related, topics concerning the tense relationship between democracy and diversity. On the one hand, social diversity represents an opportunity, widening the horizon of social options and perspectives of innovation, but, on the other hand, it creates problems for the social cohesion and peaceful coexistence of many groups, be they majority or minority. The chapters depart from the intrinsic connection between democracy and diversity – and the unavoidable challenges that pluralism poses to decision-making procedures – investigating, from different perspectives, how the normative requirement of fully respecting agents’ reflexive agency impacts the revision of democratic decision-making procedures and the way in which institutions react to citizens’ justice-based claims. All the contributions share the theoretical insight that diversity is one of the raisons d’être of democracy, and, still, all acknowledge that the fact of pluralism poses challenges to the legitimacy of democratic procedures of decision-making. Indeed, if citizens had the same values and preferences, collective decisions would be easily achieved and the institution of democratic procedures would be redundant. Yet the wide pluralism of doctrines, habits, social standards, and conceptions of the goods typical of contemporary societies has often led citizens to challenge the legitimacy of democratic decisions because these choices do not fit their preferences or values. To address these challenges following recent accounts of democratic decision-making, in this volume, different strategies are introduced, defended, and criticized in order to outline a perspective that is able to guide actual decision-making processes (guidance), define standards that everyone has equal opportunity to fulfil (inclusion), and grant that citizens exercise their reflexive control on the whole democratic system (reflexivity). The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of the Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy.

Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought set

This more positive meaning of toleration moves, therefore, from mere noninterference with beliefs and private practices to public recognition and respect for cultural difference. Toleration expands in this way toward granting equal ...

Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought  set

This groundbreaking new work explores modern and contemporary political thought since 1750, looking at the thinkers, concepts, debates, issues, and national traditions that have shaped political thought from the Enlightenment to post-modernism and post-structuralism. Encyclopedia of Modern Political Thought is two-volume A to Z reference that provides historical context to the philosophical issues and debates that have shaped attitudes toward democracy, citizenship, rights, property, duties, justice, equality, community, law, power, gender, race, and legitimacy over the last three centuries. It profiles major and minor political thinkers, and the national traditions, both Western and non-Western, which continue to shape and divide political thought. More than 200 scholars from leading international research institutions and organizations have provided signed entries that offer comprehensive coverage of: Thought of regions and countries, including African political thought, American political thought , Australasian political thought (Australian and New Zealand), Chinese political thought, Indian political thought, Islamic political Thought, Japanese political thought, and more Thought regarding contemporary issues such as abortion, affirmative action, animal rights, European integration, feminism, humanitarian intervention, international law, race and racism, and more The ideological spectrum from Marxism to neoconservatism, including anarchism, conservatism, Darwinism and Social Darwinism, Engels, fascism, the Frankfurt School, Lenin and Leninism, socialism, and more Connections of political thought to key areas of politics and other disciplines such as economics, psychology, law, and religion Notable time periods of political thought since 1750 Concepts including class, democratic theory, liberalism, nationalism, natural and human rights, and theories of the state Theorists and political intellectuals, both Western and non-Western including John Adams, Edmund Burke, Mohandas Gandhi, Immanuel Kant, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ernst Friedrich Schumacher, George Washington, and Mary Wollstonecraft

Mere Civility

See Michael Walzer, On Toleration (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999), xi; and Andrew Murphy, “Tolerance, ... in Toleration and Its Limits; Anna Galeotti, Toleration as Recognition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ...

Mere Civility

In liberal democracies committed to tolerating diversity as well as disagreement, the loss of civility in the public sphere seems critical. But is civility really a virtue, or a demand for conformity that silences dissent? Teresa Bejan looks at early modern debates about religious toleration for answers about what a civil society should look like.

Democracy and Religion

Steven Lukes , " Toleration and Recognition , " Ratio Juris 10 ( June 1997 ) , 214n 2 ; Galeotti , " Do We Need Toleration ? " 273n 1 ; David Heyd , introduction to Toleration , 1?n 1 , says tolerance and toleration may be used ...

Democracy and Religion

This book explores the interrelations of politics and religion. The work is divided into four main sections: the constitutional debate regarding the establishment and free exercise of religion clause, the themes of violence and nonviolence as they relate to religion, the free exercise of religion and the rise of fundamentalism, and the challenges to the free exercise of diverse religious practices in a democratic society.

Intolerant Religion in a Tolerant Liberal Democracy

not discuss tolerance as a right, but only, or mainly, utilitarian tolerance.12 In Locke's writings, ... If tolerant behaviour is not based, at least in part, on a 'positive' state of mind (such as recognition, acceptance, ...

Intolerant Religion in a Tolerant Liberal Democracy

This book aims to examine and critically analyse the role that religion has and should have in the public and legal sphere. The main purpose of the book is to explain why religion, on the whole, should not be tolerated in a tolerant-liberal democracy and to describe exactly how it should not be tolerated – mainly by addressing legal issues. The main arguments of the book are, first, that as a general rule illiberal intolerance should not be tolerated; secondly, that there are meaningful, unique links between religion and intolerance, and between holding religious beliefs and holding intolerant views (and ultimately acting upon these views); and thirdly, that the religiosity of a legal claim is normally a reason, although not necessarily a prevailing one, not to accept that claim.

Religion in Liberal Political Philosophy

So, for Galeotti, RR requires and grounds a form of toleration as recognition. This latter consists in treating persons' conscientiously pursued ways of life— different as they may be from each other—as equally legitimate (granted ...

Religion in Liberal Political Philosophy

Until now, there has been no direct and extensive engagement with the category of religion from liberal political philosophy. Over the last thirty years or so, liberals have tended to analyze religion under proximate categories such as 'conceptions of the good' (in debates about neutrality) or 'culture' (in debates about multiculturalism). US constitutional lawyers and French political theorists both tackled the category of religion head-on (under First Amendment jurisprudence and the political tradition of laïcité, respectively) but neither of these specialized national discourses found their way into mainstream liberal political philosophy. This is somewhat paradoxical because key liberal notions (state sovereignty, toleration, individual freedom, the rights of conscience, public reason) were elaborated as a response to 17th Century European Wars of Religion, and the fundamental structure of liberalism is rooted in the western experience of politico-religious conflict. So a reappraisal of this tradition - and of its validity in the light of contemporary challenges - is well overdue. This book offers the first extensive engagement with religion from liberal political philosophers. The volume analyzes, from within the liberal philosophical tradition itself, the key notions of conscience, public reason, non-establishment, and neutrality. Insofar as the contemporary religious revival is seen as posing a challenge to liberalism, it seems more crucial than ever to explore the specific resources that the liberal tradition has to answer it.

Positive Prejudice as Interpersonal Ethics

Thus addressing the “better angels of our nature” has far-reaching consequences for shaping society in a positive direction. TOLERATION AND RECOGNITION Tolerance or toleration has traditionally been held as a goal in ethnic relations.

Positive Prejudice as Interpersonal Ethics

Positive Prejudice as Interpersonal Ethics examines prejudice not only as a negative attitude toward others that should be eliminated but also as an orientation that enables perception and understanding. Because prejudicial attitudes appear in all human daily interactions, the interactions have the ability to shape self-concepts, the self-esteem, and the moral character of the participants. By examining this concept at the intersection of three fields--social psychological studies of the nature of prejudice, phenomenological examination of a person's interpersonal experiences, and ethical consideration of the character of constructive interactions--this book places the idea of prejudice in its larger context. By studying prejudice as situational understanding that impacts all perception and interpretation, Sara Kärkkäinen Terian offers a way to shift our understanding of prejudice from negative to positive and considers recognition of one's value as a person an integral part of positive prejudice and respect as its necessary basis.--Bertram L. Melbourne, Howard University School of Divinity