Transition Taxation and the State

This book examines the core associated problems of tax payment and collection in the context of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy and the persistence of the 'soft budget' constraint.

Transition  Taxation and the State

In economic terms three of the most important and controversial issues of our times are transition, taxation and the role of the state. This book examines the core associated problems of tax payment and collection in the context of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy and the persistence of the 'soft budget' constraint. While differences between the experiences of transition states vary, the attitude of the state towards the control of the tax discipline, its efficiency and vulnerability to corruption is shown to be a key issue, in particular when political constraints are often more pressing than tax design or economic constraints. Transition, Taxation and the State will prove detailed and enlightening reading for all those concerned with tax administration in transition countries from both economic and political perspectives.

Transition Taxation and the State

Tax, Transition and the State: The Case of Russia 33 These reforms will help to change the perception that the Russian tax system is too complicated, highly distortionary, rife with delinquency and grossly unfair.” In the short term, ...

Transition  Taxation and the State

In economic terms three of the most important and controversial issues of our times are transition, taxation and the role of the state. This book examines the core associated problems of tax payment and collection in the context of transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy and the persistence of the 'soft budget' constraint. While differences between the experiences of transition states vary, the attitude of the state towards the control of the tax discipline, its efficiency and vulnerability to corruption is shown to be a key issue, in particular when political constraints are often more pressing than tax design or economic constraints. Transition, Taxation and the State will prove detailed and enlightening reading for all those concerned with tax administration in transition countries from both economic and political perspectives.

The Spanish Fiscal Transition

This book provides an analysis of the process and outcomes of the tax reform, with a focus on progressivity, redistribution, and inequality.

The Spanish Fiscal Transition

This book provides an analysis of the process and outcomes of the tax reform, with a focus on progressivity, redistribution, and inequality. Between 1977 and 1986, Spain underwent a comprehensive tax reform which shaped its fiscal system until today. It was made in connection with the transition to democracy and indeed was understood as a fundamental part of the political change. The book situates the reform both within Spanish history and international trends in tax systems and connects it to the expansion of the welfare state and regional decentralization in Spain. The analysis reveals that the tax system failed to attain progressivity, and significant levels of fraud had a noticeable impact on inequality. Because of this, fiscal redistribution remained limited. In the new political economy of the second globalization, late democratic and fiscal transitioners were unable to emulate the path of the welfare state forerunners.

Viet Nam s Tax Reforms

Tax reform considerations with respect to taxes imposed on state- owned enterprises as well as taxes on foreign entities and Vietnamese private enterprises. Tax unification is also covered.

Viet Nam s Tax Reforms

Tax reform considerations with respect to taxes imposed on state- owned enterprises as well as taxes on foreign entities and Vietnamese private enterprises. Tax unification is also covered.

Taxation and Public Finance in Transition and Developing Economies

It is within this context that we examine the transition from the socialist state to the capitalist state that took place at the end of the twentieth century. As our primary interest lies in a sovereign state's power to tax, ...

Taxation and Public Finance in Transition and Developing Economies

Topics in this comprehensive survey include bureaucracy, corruption and tax compliance; public finance in developing economies; taxation in several former Soviet republics, Eastern Europe and China; taxation in the enlarged European Union; tax harmonization vs. tax competition; and the philosophy of taxation and public finance. The editor has assembled a stellar group of authorities to write about their areas of expertise.

The Role of Tax deductible Saving in the Transition from a Progressive Income Tax to a Progressive Consumption Tax

"This paper examines the steady state and transition effects of converting from a graduated income (y) tax to a graduated consumption (c) tax.

The Role of Tax deductible Saving in the Transition from a Progressive Income Tax to a Progressive Consumption Tax

"This paper examines the steady state and transition effects of converting from a graduated income (y) tax to a graduated consumption (c) tax. Our simulation results suggest that considerable dynamic efficiency gains could be achieved by switching to a graduated c-tax, where all saving is tax deductible. An alternative (r) tax system, permitting both tax-deductible and nontax-deductible saving, is also examined. It is shown that not only is such a tax system a feasible way of implementing a progressive c-tax, but also an r-tax without any limits on tax-deductible saving could be more efficient than even a progressive c-tax in a steady state"--Abstract, p. v

Restructuring and Taxation in Transition Economies

July 1996 One challenge in transition economies has been to avoid being caught between overrapid restructuring (harmful to the private sector) and gradual change (can undermine robust private sector emergence).

Restructuring and Taxation in Transition Economies

July 1996 One challenge in transition economies has been to avoid being caught between overrapid restructuring (harmful to the private sector) and gradual change (can undermine robust private sector emergence). Empirical evidence suggests that in most of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, insiders, by exerting decision making control, have materially affected the restructuring rate. Still, shocks to firms have generally led to sharp rises in unemployment. Unemployment benefits, initially generous, combined with lost payroll taxes substantially increased fiscal costs. In the former Soviet Union, both restructuring and unemployment have remained limited and firm subsidies remained high. The private sector expanded, but chiefly in the gray (untaxed) part of the economy. The authors examine the implications of various restructuring speeds, explicitly introducing probabilities of closure and restructuring. They find that when the probability of closure is small, unemployment will peak at a lower level than when the probability of closure is high, although the transition speed will be much slower. They also find that widespread private sector tax avoidance can stimulate that sector's growth and result in a speedier transition. Thus, while a private sector low tax burden can drive unemployment up rapidly by increasing the state sector closure probability, it can also help speed up the transition by provoking a quicker private sector response. The authors show that while the state sector restructuring speed is sensitive to the tax burden, (dependent on unemployment and the ability to tax the private sector) it is also true that the private sectors growth depends on the tax burden it faces. In particular, capturing the private sector in the tax net early in the transition can lead to collapse and hence to the failure of restructuring.

Polish Tax System in Transition to Democracy and Market Economy

This article discusses tax developments connected with the transformation of Poland from a communist (socialist) state with a centrally planned economy to a democratic state with a market economy.

Polish Tax System in Transition to Democracy and Market Economy

This article discusses tax developments connected with the transformation of Poland from a communist (socialist) state with a centrally planned economy to a democratic state with a market economy. The key feature of Poland's pretransition tax system was a strong differentiation between taxpayers according to their belonging to the dominant socialized (state or cooperative) sector of the economy or the severely reduced nonsocialized (private) sector to the detriment of the latter. The tax system was based primarily on the flow of tax money between state-owned enterprises and the state budget. Tax rules were, to a large extent, included in governmental instead of parliamentary legislative instruments. Although the fall of communism in Poland is associated with the first partially free parliamentary elections in 1989, democratic elements had been gradually reintroduced into the Polish tax system from the beginning of the 1980s: the nullum tributum sine lege principle in 1980, judicial control over tax administration in 1981, and the principle of equality in taxation of entrepreneurs regardless of their ownership status (socialized vs. non-socialized economy) in 1988. However, new taxes suitable for the changed political, social, and economic reality were introduced in a few steps between 1989 and 1993. The system evolved in the following years with the most significant post-transition changes being connected with the preparations for accession to the EU.

Fiscal Reform in European Economies in Transition

Most European economies in transition are engaged in public sector reform aimed mainly at replacing the previous fiscal system subordinated to the central plan with a system where fiscal instruments can make a distinct contribution to ...

Fiscal Reform in European Economies in Transition

Most European economies in transition are engaged in public sector reform aimed mainly at replacing the previous fiscal system subordinated to the central plan with a system where fiscal instruments can make a distinct contribution to stabilization, equity, and efficiency. This paper examines past progress and future tasks in major reform areas: taxation, subsidies, social security, public investment, public enterprises, government debt, and intergovernmental relations. An overview of the fiscal reform process suggests that the contraction and restructuring of government operations are not likely to materialize soon and that there is a serious risk of widening fiscal imbalances during the transition.

Governing Corporate Tax Management

This book focuses on corporate sector development in the context of transition economies, such as China. In doing so, the book uses quantitative methods to test several hypotheses that are salient to the Chinese economic situation.

Governing Corporate Tax Management

This book focuses on corporate sector development in the context of transition economies, such as China. In doing so, the book uses quantitative methods to test several hypotheses that are salient to the Chinese economic situation. Topics covered in the book include the relationship between tax management and firm performance, the extent to which a short-term focus on tax management can lead to long-term vulnerabilities, the impact of government ownership on tax management impact, and the link between the co-evolution of marketization and corruption, and institutional change and tax management. With that the book offers rich empirical evidence to examine tax management, firm performance and corruption in a broad context, while permitting comparison between the Chinese experience and the market economies.

Underground Economies in Transition

Published in 1999, this work examines the crucial role played by unofficial and underground activities in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe and new independent states.

Underground Economies in Transition

Published in 1999, this work examines the crucial role played by unofficial and underground activities in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe and new independent states. Countries undergoing radical transformations from socialism to capitalism experience fundamental changes in institutional rules governing property rights, government regulations, taxation and the appropriate conduct of public service. Underground and unofficial activities represents non-compliant economic behaviours involving evasion, avoidance, circumvention, abuse and/or corruption of the institutional rules as well as efforts to conceal these illicit behaviours from the view of public authorities. The book employs the conceptual framework of the new institutional economics to elaborate the theoretical relationship between underground activities and overall performance of transition economies. The social, cultural and economic causes of unofficial activities are examined as well as their consequences for economic policy and performance. Policy issues include the relationship between tax evasion and corruption, the underground economy and organized crime, state and regulation, and methods and consequences of legalization of the underground economy.

The Welfare State in Transition

This volume will be of interest to policymakers and analysts, social scientists, and economists interested in welfare states.

The Welfare State in Transition

Once heralded in the 1950s and 1960s as a model welfare state, Sweden is now in transition and in trouble since its economic plunge in the early 1990s. This volume presents ten essays that examine Sweden's economic problems from a U.S. perspective. Exploring such diverse topics as income equalization and efficiency, welfare and tax policy, wage determination and unemployment, and international competitiveness and growth, they consider how Sweden's welfare state succeeded in eliminating poverty and became a role model for other countries. They then reflect on Sweden's past economic problems, such as the increase in government spending and the fall in industrial productivity, warning of problems to come. Finally they review the consequences of the collapse of Sweden's economy in the early 1990s, exploring the implications of its efforts to reform its welfare state and reestablish a healthy economy. This volume will be of interest to policymakers and analysts, social scientists, and economists interested in welfare states.

Tax System and Redistribution the Spanish Fiscal Transition 1960 1990

To some extent, this story might also fit other countries in the European periphery, adding a new category to the international discussion on regressive taxation and welfare state development.

Tax System and Redistribution  the Spanish Fiscal Transition  1960 1990

This thesis analyses the Spanish tax system between 1960 and 1990, with special attention to the developments in progressivity, redistribution and inequality. It addresses the reforms that took place during the transition to democracy, providing a quantitative joint assessment which was missing in the literature. Because of the long dictatorship suffered by the country between 1936/39 and 1976, Spain was a laggard in abandoning the traditional liberal forms of taxation in favour of 20th century tax ideas. Taxes were low, regressive and inefficient during these decades, and the welfare state seeds were kept underdeveloped. During the sixties, public finance scholars envisaged the introduction of the 'European' model, but such a reform could not make it through under Francoism. As democracy returned, the new government soon passed several tax measures which meant to make the system progressive, efficient and able to raise higher revenue. This would bring the country into convergence with its European neighbours, allowing integration in the European Economic Community and the development of a modern welfare state. The main milestones were the introduction of a personal income tax (1979) and a value added tax (1986). But, during the following decades, social contributions kept being the single most important public revenue source, and high tax evasion persisted as one of the main unresolved problems signalled by experts. These elements sustain the initial hypothesis of a proportional or still regressive tax system after the reforms — which would contradict simple political economy models in the literature, were democratization redistributes political and economic power. Our guiding research questions thus are: Did the tax system become (more) progressive? Did it reduce income inequality in the country? And what was the evolution of tax evasion and its incidence on different income levels? The empirical work is mainly based on Household Budget Surveys, tax revenue data and statistics of tax burden distribution, which are critically treated and adjusted. Methodological innovations include a proposal for correction of biases in household survey data and an addition to Feldman and Slemrod (2007)'s method for estimating fraud in different income sources, by introducing a correction for sample selection. The calculations of the distribution of the tax burden underline the joint consideration of total taxation, including consumption taxes, which are often neglected in related work. The main results of the thesis are a considerable persistence in inequality levels (contrary to theoretical expectations and the conclusions of previous literature), the negative impact of taxation on the income distribution still after the reforms (while funding progressive social expenditure), and the severe and regressive incidence of tax evasion and base voidening in the personal income tax. The levels of tax-and-transfer redistribution attained in Spain throughout this period did not converge to those of other western countries. The author's interpretation concludes that demands for progressive taxation were constrained by both domestic political institutions –with a bias for representation of center-right interests–, and a new international political economy. The combination of sluggish growth, economic openness and neo-liberal theory made progressive taxes harder to defend and implement. This, in turn, limited the state's redistributive capacity. To some extent, this story might also fit other countries in the European periphery, adding a new category to the international discussion on regressive taxation and welfare state development. Welfare state laggards initially resorted to similar strategies to those used earlier by the leaders. But lower revenue from personal taxes, higher levels of inequality, and slow growth impeded the establishment of highly redistributive tax-and-transfer systems.

A Primer on Property Tax

'The chapters in this book explore in detail the choices regarding both the structure and administration of the property tax, drawing on the extensive knowledge the authors have acquired in studying property taxes around the world.

A Primer on Property Tax

'The chapters in this book explore in detail the choices regarding both the structure and administration of the property tax, drawing on the extensive knowledge the authors have acquired in studying property taxes around the world. The chapters provide a wide-ranging treatment of the design choices and administrative tasks, both in terms of the breadth of design options and administrative tasks covered and the depth of the discussion. The authors describe the range of design choices, discuss the associated issues and the advantages and disadvantages for each, and present the criteria to help choose among the options.’ From the book’s Foreword by David L. Sjoquist, Professor of Economics and Dan E. Sweat Scholar Chair in Educational and Community Policy, Georgia State University Property taxation is a key element in providing a solid foundation and a stable funding source for basic public services. Developing and implementing a property tax system is a complex task. This complexity is compounded by the diversity of legal, cultural and historical contexts of policymakers and tax administrators. The World Development Report (1999-2000), Entering the 21st Century puts fiscal decentralization at the top of the development agenda. This makes local taxation - and especially the property tax option - of critical importance to both tax and land policy, as well as the broader development agenda. A Primer on Property Tax: Administration and Policy provides the reader with an analysis of issues surrounding property tax, including economics, law, public finance, decentralisation, valuation, GIS and property tax reform. A key strength of the book lies in the vast international experience of the authors and the book will provide for the first time material which is topical, cutting-edge and highly relevant to many of the disciplines involved in property taxation. The authors examine the criteria applied to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of property tax, discuss the main valuation methods and the economic principles underpinning them and review the legal and administrative aspects of property tax worldwide.

The Optimum Quantity of Capital and Debt

In this paper we solve the dynamic optimal Ramsey taxation problem in a model with incomplete markets, where the government commits itself ex-ante to a time path of labor taxes, capital taxes and debt to maximize the discounted sum of ...

The Optimum Quantity of Capital and Debt

In this paper we solve the dynamic optimal Ramsey taxation problem in a model with incomplete markets, where the government commits itself ex-ante to a time path of labor taxes, capital taxes and debt to maximize the discounted sum of agents' utility starting from today. Whereas the literature has bee limited mainly to studying policies that maximize steady-state welfare only, we instead characterize the optimal policy along the full transition path. We show theoretically that in the long run the capital stock satisfies the modified golden rule. More importantly, we prove that in contrast to complete markets economies, in incomplete markets economies the long run steady state resulting from an infinite sequence of optimal policy choices is independent of initial conditions. This result is not only of theoretical interest but moreover, enables us to compute the long-run optimum independently from the transition path such that a quantitative analysis becomes tractable Quantitatively we find, robustly across various calibrations, that in the long run the government debt-to-GDP ratio is high, capital is taxed at a low rate and labor income at a high rate when compared to current U.S. values. Along the optimal transition to the steady state, labor taxes initially are lowered, financed through issuing more debt and taxing capital income heavily, before they are eventually increased to their steady-state level.

Tax Evasion Trust and State Capacities

Tax morale in changing political and economic contexts is of crucial importance. This raises a series of questions: What are the conditions under which people agree to pay taxes? Why do people avoid taxes?

Tax Evasion  Trust and State Capacities

Many recently democratized countries in Central and Eastern Europe, having escaped from communist rule and planned economies, face pressing problems related to the notions of tax evasion, trust and state capacities. Tax morale in changing political and economic contexts is of crucial importance. This raises a series of questions: What are the conditions under which people agree to pay taxes? Why do people avoid taxes? To what extent do the reasons for tax evasion vary from one region to another? The authors of this volume address these questions and try to assess the progress which has been made in Central and Eastern Europe with regard to improving tax morale through tax reforms and strengthening of extractive state capacities. A main insight is the complex causal relationship between the quality of fiscal institutions and tax morale. In addition, huge differences between countries of the former Soviet Union and central European countries, which are now members of the EU, can be observed not only at the level of democratic governance, of state capacities and the structures of trust, but also with regard to tax morale.

The State s Power to Tax in the Investment Arbitration of Energy Disputes

This book provides the first in-depth exploration of the intersection between the treaty investment protection regime and taxation measures, as these materialize in investor-state energy disputes.

The State s Power to Tax in the Investment Arbitration of Energy Disputes

The State’s Power to Tax in the Investment Arbitration of Energy Disputes Outer Limits and the Energy Charter Treaty Cornel Marian States today are expected not only to regulate the efficient and safe production and distribution of energy to end-users but also to incentivize increased production of energy and the transition to clean energy. In recent years, states are increasingly relying on taxation measures to address the economic challenges affecting the energy sector. This book provides the first in-depth exploration of the intersection between the treaty investment protection regime and taxation measures, as these materialize in investor-state energy disputes. With the analysis of all known and pending cases under the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), as well as non-ECT cases and bilateral investment treaties which have heavily influenced ECT jurisprudence, the author develops a deeply informed energy tax policy that greatly mitigates the points of tension in the current regime. He closely investigates the following elements of the subject: aligning the ECT Taxation Article with the taxation articles of other investment treaties; tracing current case law to the original arbitration decisions involving tax measures; extrapolating the interplay of taxation provisions with substantive standards of investment protection as reviewed by international arbitral tribunals; evaluating the outer limits of the state’s power to tax under investment treaties and public international law; and addressing how the Yukos arbitration case has changed the framework of taxation issues in investment arbitration. In a clear and concise manner, the author provides the necessary framework to dissect any taxation chapter of an investment treaty and presents tools for the development of long-term tax policy and the adoption of model taxation clauses for sustainable investment protection mechanisms. The book takes a giant step toward meeting the ECT’s mandate to promote long-term cooperation in the energy field with a set of defined objectives focusing on trade, cooperation, energy efficiency, and environmental protection. It will be of immeasurable value to states in developing tax-specific investment incentive schemes as well as to investors in completing a necessary level of due diligence against possible adverse tax measures. Practitioners and academics with a focus on international arbitration will benefit from the book’s systematic approach to the complex taxation provisions of investment protection treaties and more readily recognize the “red flags” attached to national taxation provisions and their impact on investments in the energy sector.

Taxation in Support of Green Transition

The objective of the study is to define a set of concrete policy recommendations to enhance efforts to reduce the emissions of GHG in the EU effectively.

Taxation in Support of Green Transition

The objective of the study is to define a set of concrete policy recommendations to enhance efforts to reduce the emissions of GHG in the EU effectively. The study takes stock of the current state of research on tax measures targeting GHG emissions and maps tax measures that incentivise individuals and/or companies to change towards more sustainable or climate-neutral behaviours. The study makes use of these information and develops a solid benchmarking to identify a number of good practice examples among the tax measures. The output of the study is intended to support Member States to enhance their national strategies to ensure that taxes aiming at reducing GHG emissions are effective, efficient, fair and economically and politically viable.

Underground Economies in Transition

Published in 1999, this work examines the crucial role played by unofficial and underground activities in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe and new independent states.

Underground Economies in Transition

Published in 1999, this work examines the crucial role played by unofficial and underground activities in the transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe and new independent states. Countries undergoing radical transformations from socialism to capitalism experience fundamental changes in institutional rules governing property rights, government regulations, taxation and the appropriate conduct of public service. Underground and unofficial activities represents non-compliant economic behaviours involving evasion, avoidance, circumvention, abuse and/or corruption of the institutional rules as well as efforts to conceal these illicit behaviours from the view of public authorities. The book employs the conceptual framework of the new institutional economics to elaborate the theoretical relationship between underground activities and overall performance of transition economies. The social, cultural and economic causes of unofficial activities are examined as well as their consequences for economic policy and performance. Policy issues include the relationship between tax evasion and corruption, the underground economy and organized crime, state and regulation, and methods and consequences of legalization of the underground economy.