Ultrafast Lasers

Martin E.Fermann IMRA America, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A. 3.1 INTRODUCTION As ultrafast laser technology has begun to be deployed in industrial applications, the availability of commercial ultrafast lasers has greatly ...

Ultrafast Lasers

Covering high-energy ultrafast amplifiers and solid-state, fiber, and diode lasers, this reference examines recent developments in high-speed laser technology. It presents a comprehensive survey of ultrafast laser technology, its applications, and future trends in various scientific and industrial areas. Topics include: micromachining applications for metals, dielectrics, and biological tissue; advanced electronics and semiconductor processing; optical coherence tomography; multiphoton microscopy; optical sampling and scanning; THz generation and imaging; optical communication systems; absolute phase control of optical signals; and more.

Ultrafast Lasers

2264–2266, 2003 U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature, vol. 424, pp. 831–838, 2003 V.Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, B. Luther-Davies, and A. V. Rode, “Passive mode locking of a Nd:YVO4 laser with ...

Ultrafast Lasers


Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers

130 OPPORTUNITIES IN INTENSE ULTRAFAST LASERS lasers is the ability to drill clean, small, deep holes in materials without damaging the surrounding material.10 The technology is now commonly used in the medical industry for fabricating ...

Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers

The laser has revolutionized many areas of science and society, providing bright and versatile light sources that transform the ways we investigate science and enables trillions of dollars of commerce. Now a second laser revolution is underway with pulsed petawatt-class lasers (1 petawatt: 1 million billion watts) that deliver nearly 100 times the total world's power concentrated into a pulse that lasts less than one-trillionth of a second. Such light sources create unique, extreme laboratory conditions that can accelerate and collide intense beams of elementary particles, drive nuclear reactions, heat matter to conditions found in stars, or even create matter out of the empty vacuum. These powerful lasers came largely from U.S. engineering, and the science and technology opportunities they enable were discussed in several previous National Academies' reports. Based on these advances, the principal research funding agencies in Europe and Asia began in the last decade to invest heavily in new facilities that will employ these high-intensity lasers for fundamental and applied science. No similar programs exist in the United States. Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers assesses the opportunities and recommends a path forward for possible U.S. investments in this area of science.

Industrial Applications Of Ultrafast Lasers

Chapter 2 Ultrafast Laser Systems 2.1 Introduction The ability to generate an ultrashort pulse of light is at the heart of this book. In this chapter, we will discuss the basic laser systems, from oscillator to amplifier, ...

Industrial Applications Of Ultrafast Lasers

This book describes the application of ultrafast laser science and technology in materials and processing relevant to industry today, including ultrafast laser ablation where fundamental studies have led to the development of the world's first femtosecond photomask repair tool. Semiconductor manufacturing companies worldwide use the tool to repair photomask defects, saving hundreds of millions in production costs. The most up-to-date ultrafast laser technologies are described and methods to generate high harmonics for photoelectron spectroscopy of industrially important materials are covered, with an emphasis on practical laboratory implementation. Basic device physics merged with photoemission studies from single- and polycrystalline materials are described. Extensions to new methods for extracting key device properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, including band offsets, effective work functions, semiconductor band bending and defect-related charging in a number of technologically important gate oxides are detailed. Polycrystalline photovoltaic materials and heterostructures as well as organic light emitting materials are covered. This book describes both the history, and most recent applications of ultrafast laser science to industrially relevant materials, processes and devices.

Ultrafast Lasers Based on Quantum Dot Structures

Over the past three decades, laser physics has advanced dramatically owing to the efforts of scientists and technologists. ... Access to practical femtosecond lasers and related sources has opened up a range ofapplications from realtime ...

Ultrafast Lasers Based on Quantum Dot Structures

In this monograph, the authors address the physics and engineering together with the latest achievements of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices. Their approach encompasses a broad range of laser systems, while taking into consideration not only the physical and experimental aspects but also the much needed modeling tools, thus providing a holistic understanding of this hot topic.

Ultrafast Laser Processing

The rapid development of ultrafast lasers (i.e., picosecond and femtosecond lasers) over the past few decades has opened up new avenues for materials processing that exploit the many advantages thatsuch lasers have overconventional ...

Ultrafast Laser Processing

Over the past few decades, the rapid development of ultrafast lasers, such as femtosecond lasers and picosecond lasers, has opened up new avenues for material processing due to their unique features such as ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity. These techniques have become a common tool for micro- and nanoprocessing of a variety of materials and are now widely used for both fundamental researches and practical applications. This book is composed of 12 chapters covering relevant topics of ultrafast laser processing, including laser itself and novel beam manipulation methods for processing, fundamentals of ultrafast laser processing, nanomaterial synthesis, surface micro- and nanostructuring, micromachining, two-photon photopolymerization, internal modification/fabrication of transparent materials, applications to photonic devices and microchips for biological analysis, industrial applications, and so on. Each chapter is written by world-leading scientists in the related field so as to give comprehensive reviews in the field of ultrafast laser micro- and nanoprocessing.

Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

30 Subpicosecond Laser Design D. L. ROSEN B. I. GREENE Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy Bell Laboratories and Lasers Murray Hill, New Jersey City College of New York New York, New York I. Introduction 531 II.

Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, Volume II discusses the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy in studying fast physics in semiconductors. It reviews progress on the experimental and theoretical understanding of ultrafast events that occur on a picosecond and nanosecond time scale. This volume discusses electronic relaxation in amorphous semiconductors and the physical mechanisms during and after the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a semiconductor. It also covers the relaxation of carriers in semiconductors; transient optical pulse propagation; and methods of time-resolved spectroscopy. Scientists, engineers, and graduate students will find this book invaluable.

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures

1.2 Ultrafast Lasers Several techniques have been developed in the past thirty years to generate ultrashort pulses. Ideally one would like to have ultrashort laser pulses of desired pulse width and pulse shape, wavelength, pulse energy, ...

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures

Ultrafast spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures is currently one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed-matter physics. Remarkable recent progress in the generation of tunable femtosecond pulses has allowed direct investigation of the most fundamental dynamical processes in semiconductors. This second edition presents the most striking recent advances in the techniques of ultrashort pulse generation and ultrafast spectroscopy; it discusses the physics of relaxation, tunneling and transport dynamics in semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures following excitation by femtosecond laser pulses.

Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers

The Coherent DPM 1000 Nd : YLF laser uses a fiber to expand the bandwidth and a grating compressor to generate < 400fs ... CONCLUSION It has now been demonstrated that commercial applications for ultrafast laser are feasible and in ...

Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers


Lasers in Materials Science

Koji Sugioka Abstract Ultrafast lasers can perform high-quality, high-precision surface micromachining of glasses through multiphoton absorption. When an ultrafast laser beam with a moderate pulse energy is focused into glass, ...

Lasers in Materials Science

This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems. The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications. Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers in Materials Science which was held in Isola di San Servolo, Venice, Italy, in July, 2012.

Commercial Applications of Ultrafast Lasers

These ultrafast laser sources are ideal for developing measurement techniques and determining the optimum wavelength , pulse width & power for the desired measurement . However , the flexibility of scientific ultrafast lasers means they ...

Commercial Applications of Ultrafast Lasers

Divided into four sections, these conference papers cover: ultrafast lasers; material processing with ultrafast lasers; biomedical applications of ultrafast lasers; and terahertz radiation generation and application.

Ultrafast Lasers for Materials Science

The emergence of ultra - fast laser and terahertz ( “ THz ” ) user facilities is opening the door for new directions and exciting opportunities in laser materials processing . Symposium MM , “ Ultrafast Lasers for Materials Science ...

Ultrafast Lasers for Materials Science

Kelley (Jefferson Lab, US), Kreutz (U. of Technology Aachen, Germany), Li (Panasonic Boston Laboratory, US), and Pique (Naval Research Laboratory, US) present 29 papers from the November/December 2004 Materials Research Society symposium of the same name, organized with the goal of bringing together researchers exploring the use of ultrafast lasers for materials synthesis, processing, and analysis. The sessions of the symposium covered fundamental science and technology of ultrafast lasers, materials characterization, laser ablation and deposition, micromachining and nanostructuring, synthesis of nanoparticles and nanowiries, and direct-writing of waveguides in transparent materials. Specific topics selected from the ten invited papers include phase change mechanisms in pulsed laser-matter interaction, high power THz generation form sub- ps bunches of relativistic electrons, micro- and nano-structured optical fibers as artificial media for amplification of light, modification and color markings in glasses by UV laser radiation, and generation of new nanomaterials by interfering femtosecond laser processing. Annotation :2005 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).

Lasers

La Jolla 610 / .28 21 International School of Physics . Description : xvii , 511 p .: ill .; 24 cm . ISBN : Commercial and biomedical applications of 0883189267 Notes : At head of Title - La ultrafast lasers II : 24-25 January ...

Lasers

Developments in lasers continue to enable progress in many areas such as eye surgery, the recording industry and dozens of others. This book presents citations from the book literature for the last 25 years and groups them for ease of access which is also provided by subject, author and titles indexes.

Medical Device Materials

Table 2: Cutting/drilling quality of materials Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Ultrafast (or ultrashort) lasers, including picosecond or femtosecond lasers, deliver a very short pulse with a very high peak power. The laser pulse width is ...

Medical Device Materials


Advances in Ultrafast Optics

However, the dye laser, even as the first generation ultrafast femtosecond laser, has not been widely used, because the performance ... At the same time, people kept exploring new gain media for a new breakthrough in mode-locked lasers.

Advances in Ultrafast Optics

Being the most active field in modern physics, Optical Physics has developed many new branches and interdisciplinary fields overlapping with various classical disciplines. This series summarizes the advancements of optical physics in the past twenty years in the following fields: High Field Laser Physics, Precision Laser Spectroscopy, Nonlinear Optics, Nanophotonics, Quantum Optics, Ultrafast Optics, Condensed Matter Optics, and Molecular Biophotonics.

Development and Application of High Peak Power Ultrafast Lasers

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Ultrafast High Peak - power Lasers Short pulses of light has been used to record fast events ever since the invention of flash photography in the 19th century . When the laser was invented in 1960 , it was ...

Development and Application of High Peak Power Ultrafast Lasers


Ultrafast dynamics of melting and ablation at large laser intensities

Ultrafast laser ablation technique is currently attracting great attention both for fundamental physics and technological applications. On the one hand, high-powered lasers producing single pulses with output powers in the petawatt ...

Ultrafast dynamics of melting and ablation at large laser intensities

Diese Arbeit leistet einen Beitrag zum Verständnis der ultraschnellen Abtrags- und Schmelzphänomene von Festkörpern bei Anregung mit Laserstrahlung großer Intensität. Fundamentale Aspekte des laserinduzierten Abtrags von Reinmetallen (Au, Al, Cu, Fe, W) mit Ultrakurzpuls-Laserstrahlung wie z.B. Laser-Materie-Wechselwirkung, Plasmabildung, Verdampfung und Schmelzdynamik wurden untersucht. Darüber hinaus wurde Schmelzen und Schweißen von technischem Borosilikatglas mittels hochrepetierender Ultrakurzpuls-Laserstrahlung untersucht. Für Untersuchungen der transienten laserinduzierten Vorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Zeitskalen wurden neuartige experimentelle Verfahren entwickelt und eingesetzt. Pumpprobe Photographie wurde für zeitaufgelöste Messungen auf einem erweiterten zeitlichen Detektionsbereich bis ca. 2 Mikrosekunden mit Sub-Pikosekunden Auflösung realisiert. Für Detektion von transienten Brechungsindexmodifikationen und Morphologieänderungen wurde ein neuartiges, zeitaufgelöstes Verfahren zur quantitativen Phasenmikroskopie (TQPm) entwickelt. Die geometrischen und zeitlichen Profile der eingesetzten Laserstrahlung großer Intensität wurden beim Abtragen von Metallen untersucht. Aufheizung des Materials bedingt durch spontane verstärkte Emission mit Pulsdauer im Nanosekundenbereich führt zu einem materialabhängigen Temperaturanstieg von mehreren hundert Kelvin und wurde numerisch untersucht. Zeitaufgelöste Schattenphotographie und quantitative Messungen des Abtragsvolumens von Metallen wurden in unterschiedlichen Umgebungen durchgeführt. Im untersuchten zeitlichen Detektionsbereich kann die beobachtete Abtragsdynamik in mindestens vier charakteristischen Zeitregimes klassifiziert werden: Ausbreitung von dichtem Materialdampf und Plasma, Verdampfung aufgrund der Nukleationseffekte, Abtrag in Form von flüssigen Schmelzstrahlen und Erstarrung. Basierend auf experimentellen Ergebnissen wurde ein qualitatives Modell für laserinduzierten Abtrag von Metallen bei großen Strahlungsintensitäten aufgestellt, welches bedeutende Unterschiede zum Abtragen bei schwellennahen Intensitäten aufweist. Insbesondere sind physikalische Vorgänge die im Zusammenhang mit Materieüberhitzung stehen wie z.B. Phasenexplosion und “boiling crisis”, als entscheidende Abtragsphänomene suggeriert worden. Laserinduziertes Schmelzen von technischem Borosilikatglas mit hochrepetierender Ultrakurzpuls-Laserstrahlung wurde mittels TQPm zeitaufgelöst untersucht. Experimentelle Ergebnisse weisen transiente Brechungsindexmodifikationen auf welche auf Ionisationsprozesse und Verdichtung der Materie zurückzuführen sind. Als eine wichtige Anwendung dieser Prozesse wurde das Mikroschweißen von dünnen Glas- und Silizium-Platten demonstriert. Beim Schmelzen von Material an Substrat-Grenzflächen können konsistente Schweißnähte im Mikrometerbereich erzeugt werden.

Laser Micro Nano Manufacturing and 3D Microprinting

In comparison with the continuous wave and long pulse (ns ~ ms) lasers, ultrafast lasers with pulse duration in the timescale of ps and fs ranges can induce a unique cold processing effect, based on which the heat affect zone on ...

Laser Micro Nano Manufacturing and 3D Microprinting

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in laser techniques for micro-nano-manufacturing and an in-depth analysis of applications, such as 3D printing and nanojoining. Lasers have gained increasing significance as a precise tool for advanced manufacturing. Written by world leading scientists, the first part of the book presents the fundamentals of laser interaction with materials at the micro- and nanoscale, including multiphoton excitation and nonthermal melting, and allows readers to better understand advanced processing. In the second part, the authors focus on various advanced fabrications, such as laser peening, surface nanoengineering, and plasmonic heating. Finally, case studies are devoted to special applications, such as 3D printing, microfluidics devices, energy devices, and plasmonic and photonic waveguides. This book integrates both theoretical and experimental analysis. The combination of tutorial chapters and concentrated case studies will be critically attractive to undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the relevant fields. Readers will grasp the full picture of the application of laser for micro-nanomanufacturing and 3D printing.

Ultrafast Lasers Probe Phenomena in Semiconductors and Superconductors

An autocorrelation method was proposed and applied to measure the temporal decay of these ultrafast voltage pulses . It was also ascertained that these pulses were generated in the superconducting state . Using a 40 ps laser , voltage ...

Ultrafast Lasers Probe Phenomena in Semiconductors and Superconductors


Laser Surface Interactions for New Materials Production

12 Ultrafast Laser Processing of Glass Down to the Nano-Scale Koji Sugioka Summary. Ultrafast lasers can induce strong absorption in materials and even in transparent materials, due to nonlinear multiphoton absorption.

Laser Surface Interactions for New Materials Production

This book provides an overview on nanosecond and ultra-short laser-induced phenomena and the related diagnostics. It grew from the lectures of the International School "Laser-surface interactions for new materials production" held in July 2008.