Uncertainty in Games

That is: we create games. In this concise and entertaining book, Costikyan, an award-winning game designer, argues that games require uncertainty to hold our interest, and that the struggle to master uncertainty is central to their appeal.

Uncertainty in Games

How uncertainty in games—from Super Mario Bros. to Rock/Paper/Scissors—engages players and shapes play experiences. In life, uncertainty surrounds us. Things that we thought were good for us turn out to be bad for us (and vice versa); people we thought we knew well behave in mysterious ways; the stock market takes a nosedive. Thanks to an inexplicable optimism, most of the time we are fairly cheerful about it all. But we do devote much effort to managing and ameliorating uncertainty. Is it any wonder, then, asks Greg Costikyan, that we have taken this aspect of our lives and transformed it culturally, making a series of elaborate constructs that subject us to uncertainty but in a fictive and nonthreatening way? That is: we create games. In this concise and entertaining book, Costikyan, an award-winning game designer, argues that games require uncertainty to hold our interest, and that the struggle to master uncertainty is central to their appeal. Game designers, he suggests, can harness the idea of uncertainty to guide their work. Costikyan explores the many sources of uncertainty in many sorts of games—from Super Mario Bros. to Rock/Paper/Scissors, from Monopoly to CityVille, from FPS Deathmatch play to Chess. He describes types of uncertainty, including performative uncertainty, analytic complexity, and narrative anticipation. And he suggest ways that game designers who want to craft novel game experiences can use an understanding of game uncertainty in its many forms to improve their designs.

Sources of Uncertainty

Uncertainty in games—from Super Mario Bros. to Rock/Paper/Scissors—engages players and shapes play experiences. This BIT examines the sources of that uncertainty, from doubts about performance to a game's elements of randomness.

Sources of Uncertainty

Uncertainty in games -- from Super Mario Bros. to Rock/Paper/Scissors -- engages players and shapes play experiences. This BIT examines the sources of that uncertainty, from doubts about performance to a game's elements of randomness.

Winning the Uncertainty Game

This book is about the challenges that emerge for organizations from an ever faster changing world.

Winning the Uncertainty Game

This book is about the challenges that emerge for organizations from an ever faster changing world. While useful at their time, several management tools, including classic strategic planning processes, will no longer suffice to address these challenges in a timely and comprehensive fashion. While individual management tools are still valid to solve specific problems, they need to be employed based on a clear understanding of what the greater challenge is and how they need to be combined and prioritized with other approaches. In order to do so, companies can apply the clarity of thinking from the military with regard to which leadership level is responsible for what and how these levels need to interact in order to produce a single aligned response to an outside opportunity or threat. Finally, the tool of business wargaming, while known for some time, proves to be an ideal approach to quickly and effectively bring all leadership levels together, align them around a common objective and lay the groundwork for effective implementation of targeted responses that will keep the organization competitive and in the game for the long run. The book offers a comprehensive introduction to business wargaming, including a historical account, a classification of different types of games and a number of specific real-world examples. This book is targeted at practicing managers dealing with the aforementioned challenges, as well as for students of business and strategy at every level.

Framing Uncertainty

This book presents a compilation of articles on the subject of game studies written over the last ten years.

Framing Uncertainty

This book presents a compilation of articles on the subject of game studies written over the last ten years. These texts reflect a decade of research in European computer game studies from a theoretical perspective that combines philosophy, cultural studies, visual studies, and media studies in a way that is unique to a specific type of media theory developed in Germany over the last thirty years. This theory differs quite significantly from media studies as usually conceived in Anglo-American academia, providing new perspectives that are rooted in continental philosophical traditions ranging from phenomenology to post-structuralism and newer forms of “presence studies” in aesthetic theory. The book provides (1) an introduction to a continental approach to game philosophy; (2) an aesthetic theory of computer games rooted in concepts of performativity and epistemology; and (3) an introduction to an interdisciplinary approach to game studies that is based on philosophical perspectives on the subject matter.

Topics in Uncertainty in Game Theory

I study three aspects of uncertainty in games.

Topics in Uncertainty in Game Theory

I study three aspects of uncertainty in games. The first chapter looks at games with unknown payoff distributions, where each state of the world corresponds to a different payoff matrix of a stage game. A folk theorem holds for games where all information about the state of the world is public, even in some cases where actions are only imperfectly observed. The second chapter tests the hypothesis that the war of attrition model of strikes accurately describes the characteristics of strikes over wages in the United States in the early to middle part of the 1880s. That hypothesis is not rejected by probit, maximum score, or nonparametric kernel estimation. Alternative game theoretic models of strikes do not fit the data as well. The third chapter deals with a model of sequential choice and examines the outcome of a class of non-Bayesian learning rules based on maximum score, kernel, and nearest neighbor econometric methods.

The Game Design Reader

Next, let's examine a handful of different game dynamics, and explore their roles in creating dramatic tension. Game Dynamics That Produce Dramatic Tension How exactly do uncertainty and inevitability emerge from game play?

The Game Design Reader

Classic and cutting-edge writings on games, spanning nearly 50 years of game analysis and criticism, by game designers, game journalists, game fans, folklorists, sociologists, and media theorists. The Game Design Reader is a one-of-a-kind collection on game design and criticism, from classic scholarly essays to cutting-edge case studies. A companion work to Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman's textbook Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, The Game Design Reader is a classroom sourcebook, a reference for working game developers, and a great read for game fans and players. Thirty-two essays by game designers, game critics, game fans, philosophers, anthropologists, media theorists, and others consider fundamental questions: What are games and how are they designed? How do games interact with culture at large? What critical approaches can game designers take to create game stories, game spaces, game communities, and new forms of play? Salen and Zimmerman have collected seminal writings that span 50 years to offer a stunning array of perspectives. Game journalists express the rhythms of game play, sociologists tackle topics such as role-playing in vast virtual worlds, players rant and rave, and game designers describe the sweat and tears of bringing a game to market. Each text acts as a springboard for discussion, a potential class assignment, and a source of inspiration. The book is organized around fourteen topics, from The Player Experience to The Game Design Process, from Games and Narrative to Cultural Representation. Each topic, introduced with a short essay by Salen and Zimmerman, covers ideas and research fundamental to the study of games, and points to relevant texts within the Reader. Visual essays between book sections act as counterpoint to the writings. Like Rules of Play, The Game Design Reader is an intelligent and playful book. An invaluable resource for professionals and a unique introduction for those new to the field, The Game Design Reader is essential reading for anyone who takes games seriously.

Simulation Gaming On the Improvement of Competence in Dealing with Complexity Uncertainty and Value Conflicts

Proceedings of the International Simulation and Gaming Association's 19th International Conference, ... Related to almost all simulation-games discussed in this book are concepts like uncertainty, information, strategy, policy, ...

Simulation Gaming  On the Improvement of Competence in Dealing with Complexity  Uncertainty and Value Conflicts

This volume records the Proceedings of the International Simulation and Gaming Association's 19th International Conference which took place at Utrecht University in 1988. Seven sections are contained in the volume. The first section on complexity, uncertainty and conflict deals with theoretical and methodological issues. This is the introduction to the conference theme "On the improvement of competence". The following sections cover broad areas: organizational change, business simulation, policy exercise, methodology, learning environments, and special topics such as environmental planning, health care, diplomatic games and gambling.

Investment under Uncertainty Coalition Spillovers and Market Evolution in a Game Theoretic Perspective

Innovation Adoptation and Welfare under Uncertainty. The Journal of Industrial Economics, 40, 173–180. Kaarbøe, O.M. and A.F. Tieman (1999). Equilibrium Selection in Supermodular Games with Simultaneous Play. Mimeo, Dept. of Economics, ...

Investment under Uncertainty  Coalition Spillovers and Market Evolution in a Game Theoretic Perspective

Two crucial aspects of economic reality are uncertainty and dynamics. In this book, new models and techniques are developed to analyse economic dynamics in an uncertain environment. In the first part, investment decisions of firms are analysed in a framework where imperfect information regarding the investment's profitability is obtained randomly over time. In the second part, a new class of cooperative games, spillover games, is developed and applied to a particular investment problem under uncertainty: mergers. In the third part, the effect of bounded rationality on market evolution is analysed for oligopolistic competition and incomplete financial markets.

Games with Non probabilistic Uncertainty

The thesis studies games with non-probabilistic uncertainty about some parameters that affect the rewards of the players.

Games with Non probabilistic Uncertainty


Computer based Learning Games Involving Chance based Uncertainty

There were a few reasons that determined my interest in this field of research and justified the reasons why this doctoral study was carried out.

Computer based Learning Games Involving Chance based Uncertainty

There were a few reasons that determined my interest in this field of research and justified the reasons why this doctoral study was carried out. One was literature praising the motivational incentives of chance, uncertainty. and competition in learning settings and especially computer games. Another Important factor was research revealing the memory and learning promoting properties of reward uncertainty and, particularly, prediction error (PE: the difference between expected and actual reward). All the previous together with my personal interest on how people learn through gaming, determined my interest in pursuing this PhD study. The current study is based on asking both adults and children to interact individually and collaboratively with competitive and non competitive learning computer games that promoted reward uncertainty and PE. It was conducted within both laboratory and classroom based settings and the data collected was of both quantitative and qualitative nature. Specifically, this research was conducted in two parts; the first part consisted of four studies on uncertainty and the second part that consisted of two phases. Phase _1 was in the laboratory with adults using a non competitive learning game and phase _2 was in the classroom with children interacting with competitive games of learning. For the purposes of this research, a mixed methods approach was employed, including quantitative methods like physiological measurements and statistical explorations of numeric data, as well as qualitative methods such as audio recordings and interviews. The general aim of this study was to investigate the potential link between uncertainty and PE, engagement and learning in laboratory experiments involving adults, and then use this understanding to explore how children engage with learning games involving chance-based uncertainty in more "real world" classroom environments, seeking to interrelate this understanding with the discourse and social constructions associated with such games and to also examine the effect of the artificial opponent (AO) within such contexts. Part! revealed many interesting things with regard to uncertainty. The first part_1 study showed children's preference towards uncertainty involving computer gaming tasks with their justifications revealing that they wanted, liked and enjoyed this option more than the certain one. The second study showed that the inclusion of an element of gaming uncertainty appeared to raise the EDA of the adult participants when answering questions that were intended to support their learning. Part_l-study_3 revealed similar trends in children's EDA responses within the same gaming context, also revealing some very interesting results on children's emotional synchrony when collaborating around computers. Part_1-study -- 4 aimed to explore the emotional arousal of children within this gaming context in more depth, by looking at their facial and bodily expressions. It also aimed to explore the link between the emotional arousal due to gaming uncertainty and learning as revealed by part_1 studies 2 and 3 further, by tracking the appearance of each question in the game in order to look at the different ways in which material was learned. Part_I-study -- 4 found that the game intervention promoted learning as participants scored significantly higher on the post test than on the pre test. In this study it was tr 1 found that the most frequently occurring and intensely emotionally loaded a mressions were associated among others to courses of the game when many points were at. stake. This study also found that a lot of the material in the game was encoded and/or recalled through highly emotionally loaded events as revealed from the video analysis. The general feeling from the video analysis was that students were immersed in the gaming discourse and they enjoyed playmg the computer game. Part 2 showed some very interesting things. Phase_l revealed that at recall, PE for successful learning was significantly higher than PE for unsuccessful learning. This . provided the green light to investigate the potentially positive influence of positive prediction error (PPE) on learning within computer gaming environments of this type. Classroom based studies of phase_2 revealed that the type of the AO, whether matched based on academic ability or gaming strategy, does make a difference on students' discourse and constructs in a learning experience and also provided indications on how children collaborate around computers. This difference in students' constructs was revealed from their drawings of the two AOs, since they appeared to draw each of them in a different way based on the AOs' characteristics that were revealed while competing against them in the game. This was an interesting finding as it provided indications that, when matching the performance of the AO to the players, the source of the uncertainty originating from the AO, whether it is located in its academic ability or gaming strategy, does make a difference. Finally, similarly to Phase _1, in the second study of this phase it was found that on average, PE for successful learning was significantly higher than PE for unsuccessful learning, providing indications for the potentially reinforcing properties of positive PE on learning.