Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism

This book explores a cross-cultural worldview called 'radical apocalypticism' that underlies the majority of terrorist movements in the twenty-first century.

Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism

This book explores a cross-cultural worldview called 'radical apocalypticism' that underlies the majority of terrorist movements in the twenty-first century. Although not all apocalypticism is violent, in its extreme forms radical apocalypticism gives rise to terrorists as varied as members of Al Qaeda, Anders Behring Breivik, or Timothy McVeigh. In its secular variations, it also motivates ideological terrorists, such as the eco-terrorists Earth Liberation Front or The Unabomber, Ted Kaczynski. This book provides an original paradigm for distinguishing between peaceful and violent or radical forms of apocalypticism and analyses the history, major transformations, and characteristics of the apocalyptic thought system. Using an inter-disciplinary and cross-cultural approach, this book discusses the mechanisms of radicalization and dynamics of perceived oppression and violence to clarify anew the self-identities, motivations, and goals of a broad swath of terrorists. As conventional counter-terrorism approaches have so far failed to stem the cycle of terrorism, this approach suggests a comprehensive "cultural" method to combating terrorism that addresses the appeal of radical apocalyptic terrorist ideology itself. This book will be of much interest to students of apocalypticism, political violence, terrorism and counter-terrorism, intelligence studies, religious studies, and security studies.

Apocalypse Revolution and Terrorism

Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism Countering the radical mindset Frances L. Flannery Understanding Terrorism Innovation and Learning Al-Qaeda and beyond Edited by Magnus Ranstorp and Magnus Normark Terrorist Histories Individuals and ...

Apocalypse  Revolution and Terrorism

This book focuses on religiously driven oppositional violence through the ages. Beginning with the 1st-century Sicari, it examines the commonalities that link apocalypticism, revolution, and terrorism occurring in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam past and present. It is divided into two sections, 'This was Then' and 'This is Now', which together examine the cultural and religious history of oppositional violence from the time of Jesus to the aftermath of the 2016 American election. The historical focus centers on how the movements, leaders and revolutionaries from earlier times are interpreted today through the lenses of historical memory and popular culture. The radical right is the primary but not exclusive focus of the second part of the book. At the same time, the work is intensely personal, in that it incorporates the author's experiences in the worlds of communist Eastern Europe, in the Iranian Revolution, and in the uprisings and wars in the Middle East and East Africa. This book will be of much interest to students of religious and political violence, religious studies, history, and security studies.

Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence

Evolutionary Psychology and Terrorism Edited by Max Taylor, Jason Roach and Ken Pease Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism Countering the Radical Mindset Frances L. Flannery Understanding Terrorism Innovation and Learning Al-Qaeda and ...

Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence

This book provides a multidisciplinary approach to understanding human behavior and uses it to analyze the forces shaping the life cycle of violent political movements. This new edition has been revised and updated, with three new chapters being added. The 2nd edition takes us deeper inside human motivations, which cause otherwise rational people to join dissident groups, willing to kill and be killed. In doing so, the book draws upon research on brain science, evolutionary biology, and social psychology to help explain pathological collective behavior. From the motivations of individual participants, the book turns to the evolution of terrorist groups by venturing into theories of organizational development. Together, these theories explain the life cycle – the birth, growth, transformation from an ideological group to a criminal syndicate, and demise -- of a dissident organization. These hypotheses are supported with detailed case studies of three disparate terrorist movements: the nationalists of the IRA, the communist Naxalites of India, and the religious fundamentalists of al-Qaeda and ISIS. The book’s theory leads to an explanation of the current global trend of rising tribalism and authoritarianism. The author warns that this latest wave of xenophobia and authoritarianism is likely to be exacerbated by climate change and the consequent rise in sea-levels, which could displace millions from the areas least able to mitigate the effects of global warming to the countries that can. This book will be essential reading for students of terrorism studies, and of great interest to students of social psychology, political science and sociology.

Apocalypse without God

Frances Flannery emphasizes this point in her study of apocalyptic groups that engage in terrorism. ... it helps improve society while leaving it deeply flawed, like when 23 Flannery, Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism, 133.

Apocalypse without God

Explains why apocalyptic thought, despite often being dismissed as bizarre, has persistent appeal in political life.

The Ultimate Guide to Understanding Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Terrorism and Counterterrorism Explained Dr. Jeffrey C. Fox ... The combination in the rise in apocalyptic terrorist groups and advances in technology, which can be used for mass destruction, helps to raise the stakes.

The Ultimate Guide to Understanding Terrorism and Counterterrorism

This book is for anyone who is interested in learning about terrorism in all its forms. For over four decades I have studied terrorism, trained to deal with it, dealt with it, and taught it as an academic discipline. Over these decades I have seen an already complicated topic become even more difficult to understand. The field of study has grown as the world has gotten smaller. Ask anyone what terrorism is and you will get a myriad of answers. Even in academia the topic has become more convoluted. As with crime, there are many theories espoused as to why one commits terrorism and why terrorism exists. It appears to me that many academics, researchers, policymakers, authors, and journalists in general view this topic with a tainted lens based on their own world view. Some act as apologists for terrorists while often doing so in a subtle manner. Some try to expand the definition and concept well beyond the scope that it should be found. I have students who do this all the time. We seem to be living in an emotion driven society instead of a fact driven one. A relatively new trend is to use the word extremist as a synonym for terrorist. There are several problems with this. First, this creates a net widening effect which lumps those who we disagree with in that net. Second, who gets to decide who or what is extreme? Third, and finally, it waters down and muddies the study of “terrorism”. This does not mean that an extremist might not become a terrorist. Having pointed out the minefield terrorism can be my goal is to offer an academically sound real-world fact-based explanation on terrorism. Terrorism can be a politically charged topic. I ask that as you read this book you check what is written, digest it, and make your own decisions on what you have read. It is highly likely some of your thinking will be challenged. When I began to teach homeland security which includes terrorism, I made a promise to myself that I would never be politically correct. Political correctness is what some terrorists rely on and is one of our worse habits. We will cover several overarching themes. We will look at what terrorism is and is not. We will explore the historical roots of terrorism. We will discuss the causes of terrorism as well as terrorist typologies. Next, we will examine domestic terrorism and international and ethnic terrorism. Then we will dive into religion and terrorism and spend time looking at Islamic terrorism and Jihad. We will examine asymmetric warfare including terrorists’ tactics and weapons of choice. We will discuss terrorist financing an explore counterterrorism.

Archetype of the Apocalypse

Edward Edinger looks at the chaos predicted by the Book of Revelation and relates it to current trends including global violence, AIDS, and apocalyptic cults.

Archetype of the Apocalypse

The collective belief in Armageddon has become more powerful and widespread in the wake of recent terrorist attacks. Edward Edinger looks at the chaos predicted by the Book of Revelation and relates it to current trends including global violence, AIDS, and apocalyptic cults.

The Nuclear Terrorism Threat

It could be motivated to carry out such a suicide mission by means of ideological or apocalyptic reasons. There would be a substantial likelihood that ... It enables us to more comprehensively understand the nuclear terrorism threat.

The Nuclear Terrorism Threat

This book examines the threat of a terrorist organisation constructing and detonating a nuclear bomb. It explores the role and impact of the organisational design of a terrorist organisation in implementing a nuclear terrorism plot. In order to do so, the work builds on the organisational analogy between an assumed nuclear terrorism scenario and four case studies as follows: the construction of the first atomic bombs at Los Alamos; South Africa’s Peaceful Nuclear Explosives (PNE) program; Aum Shinrikyo’s chemical-biological armament activities; and Al Qaeda’s implementation of the 9/11 attacks. Extrapolating insights from these case studies, this book introduces the idea of an effectiveness-efficiency trade-off. On the one hand, it will be argued that a more organic organisational design is likely to benefit the effective implementation of a nuclear terrorism project. On the other hand, this type of organic organisational design is also likely to simultaneously constitute an inefficient way for a terrorist organisation to guarantee its operational and organisational security. It follows, then, that the implementation of a nuclear terrorism plot via an organic organisational design is also likely to be an inefficient strategy for a terrorist organisation to achieve its strategic and political goals. This idea of an effectiveness-efficiency trade-off provides us with a tool to strengthen the comprehensive nature of future nuclear terrorism threat assessments and sheds new light on the ongoing debates within the nuclear terrorism literature. This book will be of particular interest to students of nuclear proliferation, terrorism studies, international organisations, and security studies in general.

Terrorism Political Violence and Extremism New Psychology to Understand Face and Defuse the Threat

(3:163–165).36 This fantasy of death and rebirth is situated within an apocalyptic mythology. On the theological plane, the martyr not only wishes to die and be reborn in paradise, but he also desires apocalyptic destruction and the ...

Terrorism  Political Violence  and Extremism  New Psychology to Understand  Face  and Defuse the Threat

A must-read for psychologists—clinical and academic alike—as well as for political scientists, policy analysts, and others working in the realm of terrorism, political violence, and extremism, this book carefully explores the theories, observations, and approaches of authorities in the field and addresses how and why terrorism has perpetuated for so long. • Addresses how various groups are affected by terrorism, including children, older adults, and, arguably more relevant than ever before, refugees • Tackles the perplexing question of why terrorism has remained such a difficult problem to overcome • Includes contributions from Islamic subject matter expert, scholar, and author Dr. Sayed Ammar Nakshawani, listed among The 500 Most Influential Muslims • Serves as appropriate reading for students taking courses in subjects ranging from international psychology, military psychology and theory, political science, and political theory to religious studies, peace studies, military sciences, law enforcement, social work, feminist theory, public health, sociology, and anthropology

A New Understanding of Terrorism

In order to understand the likelihood of surrender, the religious nature of the groups must be addressed. As has been exhibited throughout history, religious cults harboring apocalyptic endings are unlikely to fall to massive shows of ...

A New Understanding of Terrorism

Terrorism is a complex phenomenon that cannot be understood through reading of a number of unrelated academic articles or a dry overview of the history of terrorism or the investigative techniques. For A New Understanding of Terrorism, the Editors have chosen a different paradigm. They have selected numerous case studies from actual events that illustrate various typologies of terrorist actions, be it from a separatist, nationalist, lone-wolf individual terrorist, religious fanatics or environmentalist orientation, and they present these cases within the context of following the trajectories of the terrorist activity, the terrorist act itself and, the response to the event from the relevant authorities. Some chapters concentrate on terrorist attacks that actually took place, others speculate about the possibilities of an attack occurring sometime in the future, such as the chapters on the Olympic Games, Aviation or Rail Security. When possibilities rather than a specific event are discussed, the authors of these chapters draw the attention of the reader towards the same direction—the reasoning, the actual event and the response that followed. The thorough analysis of the presented case studies and the applied counter-measures will, hopefully, if not curtail then possibly at least mitigate the operational and ideological strength of terrorist groups or individual actors. A New Understanding of Terrorism will enable the reader to make the connection between the emotional charge inherent in any terrorist activity, the cold-blooded tactics that lead to the terrorist event itself and the pragmatic and very straightforward, but at the same time very simplistically designed, strategic response that has to come from a synergy between academics, military and law enforcement brainstorming design in order to be more effective in the future. ABOUT THE EDITORS: M.R. (Maki) Haberfeld is a Professor of Police Science at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. She has worked for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, in the New York Field Office, as a special consultant. Prior to that she has served in a counter-terrorist unit in the Israeli Defense Forces and she left the army at the rank of Sergeant. She was also a lieutenant in the Israel National Police. For the past eight years, Dr. Haberfeld has been involved in developing, coordinating and teaching in a special training program for the New York City Police Department, where she teaches courses in police ethics, leadership and counter-terrorism. She was also an Academic Coordinator of the Law Enforcement Executive Police Institute for the State of New York, where she taught modules on counter-terrorism response. Agostino von Hassell is the president of The Repton Group LLC, a New York City based consulting group that deals mostly with national security issues. He has written numerous political and historical articles and is the author of two major military histories, Warriors: The United States Marine Corps and Strike Force: Marine Corps Special Operations. In 2003, he published a pictorial portrait of the United States—In Honor of America. He has taught as an adjunct professor in the graduate program of John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York, teaching members of the New York City Police Department in subjects such as counter-terrorism and leadership. He is a life member of the United States Marine Corps Combat Correspondents, the National Defense Industry Association, the Association of Former Intelligence Officers and the Authors’ Guild.

Secessionism and Terrorism

Its aim is to produce a useful taxonomy of terror and violence through comparative and historical analysis in both ... Jason Roach and Ken Pease Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism Countering the radical mindset Frances L. Flannery ...

Secessionism and Terrorism

This book examines secessionist terrorism in a comparative context across Europe and Eurasia. The volume seeks to uncover comparative linkages between terrorism and secessionism; specifically examining terrorist organizations that also have a political goal of independence. It examines a wide range of case studies, including the IRA in Northern Ireland, ETA in the Basque Country, FLNC in Corsica and ARD in Brittany, KLA in Kosovo, PKK and TAK in Turkish Kurdistan, and IK in Chechnya. In doing so, the book shows the linkages in terrorist tactics and demands, as well as when and how ceasefires come into place. Ultimately, none of the terrorist organizations studied here has obtained their maximalist goal of gaining independence, but each has caused significant bloodshed, and has contributed to the debate on the future of governance in Europe and Eurasia. The major strength of this format is to glean wider lessons on ethno-nationalism, as well as the causes and outcomes of terrorist actions. Each case study also updates the literature on the individual cases to provide the most recent account of events in these countries. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism and political violence, ethnic conflict, nationalism, European politics and International Relations in general.

Terrorist Histories

... Ranstorp and Magnus Normark Evolutionary Psychology and Terrorism Edited by Max Taylor, Jason Roach and Ken Pease Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism Countering the radical mindset Frances L. Flannery Terrorist Histories Individuals ...

Terrorist Histories

This book addresses provides a series of in-depth portraits of men and women who have been labelled ‘terrorists’, from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. Bridging historical methodologies and theoretical approaches to terrorism studies, it seeks to contribute to the developing historicising of terrorism studies. This is achieved principally through a prosopographical approach. In the preponderance of detailed statistical and quantitative data on the practice of terrorism and political violence, the individuals who participate in terrorist acts are often obscured. While ideologies and organisations have attracted much scholarly interest, less is known of the personal trajectories into political violence, particularly from a historical perspective. The focus on a relatively narrow cast of high-profile terrorist ‘villains’, to a large part driven by popular and media attention, results in a somewhat skewed picture; of equal value, arguably, is a more sustained reflection on the lives of lesser-known individuals. The book sits at the juncture between terrorism studies, historical biography and ethnography. It comprises case studies of ten individuals who have engaged in political violence in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries, in a number of locations and with a variety of ideological motivations, from Russian-inflected anarchism to Islamist extremism. Through detailed empirical research, crucial themes in the study of terrorism and political violence are explored: the diverse individual radicalisation pathways, the question of disengagement and re-engagement, various counter-terrorist and counter-insurgency strategies adopted by governments and security forces, and the changing nature and perception of terrorism over time. Although not explicitly comparative, a number of themes resonate between the case studies, which will be drawn together in the conclusion to this book. These include the role of migration in radicalisation, the influence of radical family heritages, the experience of imprisonment and the narratives which individuals construct to tell their own terrorist life-stories. It also provides an historically grounded answer to one of the most contentious and heated debates in recent literature on terrorism studies: ‘what leads a person to turn to political violence?’ In examining the life-narratives of a diverse range of men and women who at some point embraced violence, this book seeks to contribute to a growing understanding of the entire arc of a terrorist lifespan, from radicalisation to mobilisation, to disengagement and beyond. This book will be of much interest to students of political violence, terrorism studies, security studies and politics in general.

The Psychology of Terrorism Theoretical understandings and perspectives

See also Apocalyptic fantasies Millennium (Attali), 85, 108 Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI), administered to former cultists, 216 Mind control, 214-15, 218; and conversion to communism, 214; in Hindu movements, 215; ...

The Psychology of Terrorism  Theoretical understandings and perspectives

Responding directly to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, an outstanding interdisciplinary group of academics, clinicians, and activists from around the world united to produce this clear exploration of terrorism.

Terrorists As Monsters

Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism: Countering the Radical Mindset. Basingstoke, UK: Routledge. Fletcher, Angus. 1964. Allegory: The Theory of a Symbolic Mode. Ithaca, NY, and New York: Cornell University Press. Forker, Martin. 2012.

Terrorists As Monsters

From the chilling threats of the "ISIS vampire" to the view of al-Qaeda as the "Frankenstein the CIA created," terrorism seems to be inextricably bound with monstrosity. But why do the media and government officials often portray terrorists as monsters? And perhaps more puzzling, why do terrorists sometimes want to be perceived as such? This book, the first of its kind, examines the use of archetypal metaphors of monstrosity in relation to terrorism, from the gorgons of Robespierre's "reign of terror" to the dragons and lycanthropes of anarchism, the beasts and blood-licking demons of ethnonational terrorism, and the hydras and Frankenstein's monsters of Islamic jihadism. Marco Pinfari argues that politicians frame terrorists as unmanageable monsters not only in an effort at cultural "othering" and dehumanization, but also to secure popular backing for rule-breaking behavior in counter-terrorism. The book also explores the way that terrorists themselves impersonate monsters, showing that several groups have pursued such a tactic throughout the history of terrorism. It contributes to a number of ongoing public debates by highlighting how, even when actors like the Islamic State present themselves as mad and irrational, their tactics remain in essence rational. Pinfari also provides an original historical outlook on the roots of monster metaphors and discusses several types of terrorism, including state terrorism, left-wing terrorism, anarchism, ethnonationalist terrorism, and white supremacist groups. In unpacking the functions played by monster metaphors and by their impersonation, Terrorists as Monsters helps the reader understand the political processes that hide behind the fangs.

World Terrorism An Encyclopedia of Political Violence from Ancient Times to the Post 9 11 Era

of every major religion as well as many fringe faiths and sects. Understanding fundamentalist-apocalyptic terrorism is crucial in explaining the increasing lethality of today's terrorism. James O. Ellis III and Bruce Hoffman ...

World Terrorism  An Encyclopedia of Political Violence from Ancient Times to the Post 9 11 Era

This is a 3-volume book. First Published in 2015. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an Informa company.

Proliferation of Weapons and Dual Use Technologies

Tucker JB (2000) Toxic terror: assessing terrorist use of chemical and biological weapons (MIT Press, MA, Cambridge, p 255) 142. ... Flannery FL (2016) Understanding apocalyptic terrorism: countering the radical mindset.

Proliferation of Weapons  and Dual Use Technologies

This book explores and analyzes the rapid pace of technological evolution in diplomatic, information, military, and economic sectors, which has contributed to a dynamic international policy environment. Global political stability is greatly influenced by innovations originating from numerous sources, including university labs, the technology sector, and military research. Collectively, these innovations guide the movement of people, ideas, and technology that in turn affect the international balance of power. The objective of this volume is to develop new insights into how the proliferation of innovative ideas, low-cost weapons, and dual-use technologies impact the changing global security landscape. Innovative and dual-use technologies can be used for beneficial purposes or defensive purposes. Alternatively they may be appropriated or employed for nefarious purposes by hostile military powers and non-state actors alike. Such actions can threaten global security and stability. As the complexity of technological innovations continues to increase, existing control mechanisms such as international regulations and security arrangements may be insufficient to stem the tide of proliferation over time. As such, this works seeks to assess and present policy solutions to curtail the threat to global stability posed by the proliferation of weapons and dual-use technology.

Tanakh Epistemology

... action on views of apocalyptic combat, and Frances L. Flannery in Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism counts “hundreds”4 of religious and secular extremists inspired by apocalypticism. Is violence inherent to apocalyptic writing or ...

Tanakh Epistemology

In this volume, Douglas Yoder uses the tools of modern and postmodern philosophy and biblical criticism to elucidate the epistemology of the Tanakh, the collection of writings that comprise the Hebrew Bible. Despite the conceptual sophistication of the Tanakh, its epistemology has been overlooked in both religious and secular hermeneutics. The concept of revelation, the genre of apocalypse, and critiques of ideology and theory are all found within or derive from epistemic texts of the Tanakh. Yoder examines how philosophers such as Spinoza, Hume, and Kant interacted with such matters. He also explores how the motifs of writing, reading, interpretation, image, and animals, topics that figure prominently in the work of Derrida, Foucault, and Nietzsche, appear also in the Tanakh. An understanding of Tanakh epistemology, he concludes, can lead to new appraisals of religious and secular life throughout the modern world.

New Religious Movements in Modern Asian History

Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism, 4 and 67. 68. ... Walliss, Apocalyptic Trajectories; Flannery, Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism. ... Disaster Approaches the Land of the Rising Sun: Shoko Asahara's Apocalyptic Predictions.

New Religious Movements in Modern Asian History

This book provides evidence that the emergence of Asian new religious movements (NRMs) was predominantly the result of anti-colonial ideology from local religious groups or individuals. The contributors argue that when traditional religions were powerless to maintain their cultural heritage, the leadership of NRMs adduced alternative principles, and the new teachings of each NRM attracted the local people enough for them to change their beliefs. The contributors argue that, as a whole, the Asian new religious movements overall were very ardent and progressive in transmitting their new ideologies. The varied viewpoints in this volume attest to the consistent development of Asian NRMs from domestic and international dimensions by replacing old, traditional religions.

Eschatology in Antiquity

He is a scholar of Muslim religious history specialising in apocalyptic literature and movements. ... (edited with Rodney Werline, 2016); Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism: Countering the Radical Mindset (2016) and she is currently ...

Eschatology in Antiquity

This collection of essays explores the rhetoric and practices surrounding views on life after death and the end of the world, including the fate of the individual, apocalyptic speculation and hope for cosmological renewal, in a wide range of societies from Ancient Mesopotamia to the Byzantine era. The 42 essays by leading scholars in each field explore the rich spectrum of ways in which eschatological understanding can be expressed, and for which purposes it can be used. Readers will gain new insight into the historical contexts, details, functions and impact of eschatological ideas and imagery in ancient texts and material culture from the twenty-fifth century BCE to the ninth century CE. Traditionally, the study of “eschatology” (and related concepts) has been pursued mainly by scholars of Jewish and Christian scripture. By broadening the disciplinary scope but remaining within the clearly defined geographical milieu of the Mediterranean, this volume enables its readers to note comparisons and contrasts, as well as exchanges of thought and transmission of eschatological ideas across Antiquity. Cross-referencing, high quality illustrations and extensive indexing contribute to a rich resource on a topic of contemporary interest and relevance. Eschatology in Antiquity is aimed at readers from a wide range of academic disciplines, as well as non-specialists including seminary students and religious leaders. The primary audience will comprise researchers in relevant fields including Biblical Studies, Classics and Ancient History, Ancient Philosophy, Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Art History, Late Antiquity, Byzantine Studies and Cultural Studies. Care has been taken to ensure that the essays are accessible to undergraduates and those without specialist knowledge of particular subject areas.

Apocalyptic Sentimentalism

And yet for some abolitionists, terror and democracy were not inimical; rather, the latter was in deep need of the former, ... if only to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the uses of terror, both in the first half of the ...

Apocalyptic Sentimentalism

Focusing on a range of important antislavery figures, including David Walker, Nat Turner, Maria Stewart, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and John Brown, Apocalyptic Sentimentalism illustrates how antislavery discourse worked to redefine violence and vengeance as the ultimate expression (rather than denial) of love and sympathy.

Religion and Violence in Western Traditions

Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism: Countering the Radical Mindset. New York: Routledge. Florentino García Martínez, trans. 1996. The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated, 2nd edition. Leiden: Brill. Gangloff, Frédéric. 2004.

Religion and Violence in Western Traditions

This book examines the connection between religion and violence in the Western traditions of the three Abrahamic faiths, from ancient to modern times. It addresses a gap in the scholarly debate on the nature of religious violence by bringing scholars that specialize in pre-modern religions and scriptural traditions into the same sphere of discussion as those specializing in contemporary manifestations of religious violence. Moving beyond the question of the “authenticity” of religious violence, this book brings together scholars from a variety of disciplines. Contributors explore the central role that religious texts have played in encouraging, as well as confronting, violence. The interdisciplinary conversation that takes place challenges assumptions that religious violence is a modern problem that can be fully understood without reference to religious scriptures, beliefs, or history. Each chapter focuses its analysis on a particular case study from a distinct historical period. Taken as a whole, these chapters attest to the persistent relationship between religion and violence that links the ancient and contemporary worlds. This is a dynamic collection of explorations into how religion and violence intersect. As such, it will be a key resource for any scholar of Religious Studies, Theology and Religion and Violence, as well as Christian, Jewish, and Islamic Studies.