Vascular Differentiation and Plant Growth Regulators

The main objective of the book is to provide an up-to-date examination of the possible roles of plant hormones during the cytodifferentiation of xylem and phloem elements in higher plants.

Vascular Differentiation and Plant Growth Regulators

The main objective of the book is to provide an up-to-date examination of the possible roles of plant hormones during the cytodifferentiation of xylem and phloem elements in higher plants. Various facets of vascular differentiation, as cell determination, cell cycle activity, and the biochemical events in xylogenesis, are analyzed. Furthermore, the latest information on the roles of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene, and abscisic acid during vascular cell formation are summarized. A theoretical discussion of the six-point hypothesis and the vascular adaptation hypothesis is included. The experimental induction of vascular differentiation under tissue culture conditions is critically appraised and a concluding chapter covers the interactions between physical factors, growth regulators, and differentiation.

Vascular Differentiation and Plant Hormones

The book is intended as a guide for molecular biology students, equipping them to successfully study plants.

Vascular Differentiation and Plant Hormones

The book is intended as a guide for molecular biology students, equipping them to successfully study plants. It pursues a holistic approach, viewing the whole plant as an integrated operating organism, and is written in a straightforward manner, making it appealing to anyone interested in plants. Further, it reflects the latest findings for scientists and students in the fields of plant sciences, biology, agriculture, forestry, ecology, vascular medicine and cancer, discussing e.g. how hormonal signals induce and regulate simple and complex patterns in plants vascular tissues, their adaptation and evolution; written by a world-renowned expert who has worked in the field for 50 years; covers the field from the initial studies conducted more than a century ago up to recent studies with up-to-date explanations; describes in details the structure, development, physiology and basic molecular biology of plants' vascular tissues, their function, regeneration and environmental adaptation; explores the controlling mechanisms of plant vascular differentiation by continuously moving hormonal signals and their precursors; discusses the regulation of stem cells and cambium, control of gradients in vascular cell size along the plant, juvenile-adult transition and rejuvenation, grafting, mechanisms of recovery from bending by reaction wood, evolution of vessels and fibers from tracheids, regulation of ring-porous wood evolution, protecting mechanisms against insects and pathogens, parasitism, plant cancer, and more; helps readers understand the scope and breadth of plant vascular systems in 20 detailed, high-quality chapters; includes a wealth of outstanding original color photographs and illustrations documenting the formation of vascular tissues; provides an in-depth understanding of plant biology by studying their vascular tissues.

An Investigation Into the Molecular Basis of Secondary Vascular Tissue Formation in Poplar and Arabidopsis with an Emphasis on the Role of Auxin and the Auxin Response Factor MONOPTEROS

The differentiation of plant vascular tissue is regulated by plant hormones and transcription factors. One of the key plant hormones involved in this process is auxin.

An Investigation Into the Molecular Basis of Secondary Vascular Tissue Formation in Poplar and Arabidopsis with an Emphasis on the Role of Auxin and the Auxin Response Factor MONOPTEROS

The differentiation of plant vascular tissue is regulated by plant hormones and transcription factors. One of the key plant hormones involved in this process is auxin. Auxin signals are mediated by auxin response factor transcription factors (ARFs). These transcription factors are involved in the perception of auxin signals and the subsequent activation or deactivation of suites of downstream genes. Based on its mutant phenotype, one of the most interesting members of this family is the ARF MONOPTEROS (MP). This thesis investigates the role played by MP in secondary vascular differentiation, as well as taking a look at other molecular aspects of secondary vascular differentiation, with a focus on the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar (Populus trichocarpa and hybrid poplar). A dexamethasone inducible RNAi silencing strategy was developed, and transgenic Arabidopsis lines produced. When silencing was induced in these lines from germination, a phenotype closely resembling the mp mutant was observed. When MP silencing was induced in bolting stems, early senescence, as well as a dramatic reduction in interfascicular fibre production was observed, and these stems were thinner and less rigid than empty vector controls. RNA from these stems was isolated and used in a global transcript profiling microarray experiment. This experiment showed that several auxin-related genes, as well as several transcription factors, were differentially regulated in response to MP silencing. Because Arabidopsis is not a typical woody plant, further investigation into the role played by MP in wood formation was done using the model tree poplar. A BLAST search of a poplar xylem EST database identified a single promising partial sequence. Based on this sequence information, a poplar MP homolog was isolated and named PopMP1. The full-length sequence of this gene demonstrated remarkable structural conservation when compared with that of Arabidopsis. Subsequent complete sequencing of the.

Auxin

This book discusses the production, biosynthesis and role of auxin in plant development.

Auxin

The word auxin has a Greek origin: auxein means to enlarge or to grow. Auxins are an important category of plant hormones, regulating many aspects of plant growth and development throughout the plant cell cycle, from cell division, cell elongation and vascular differentiation to root initiation, somatic embryogenesis, apical dominance, tropistic responses, flowering, fruit ripening, senescence, parthenocarpy, dormacy and pollen maturation. Common purification procedures for the determination of auxins include column chromatography, solid phase extraction, liquid-liquid and mass spectrometric detection. This book discusses the production, biosynthesis and role of auxin in plant development. The topics include the effects of inoculation of auxin producing bacteria on root development in model plants and semi-ardwood olive cuttings; auxins role in plant defence; auxins influence on plant developmental responses during salinity; the history, synthesis, transport, determination, metabolism, properties and physiological effects of auxins in plant growth; and the inclusion compounds of auxins in cyclodextrins.

Plant Hormones

This book is a description of these natural chemicals: how they are synthesized and metabolized, how they act at both the organismal and molecular levels, how we measure them, a description of some of the roles they play in regulating plant ...

Plant Hormones

Plant hormones play a crucial role in controlling the way in which plants grow and develop. While metabolism provides the power and building blocks for plant life, it is the hormones that regulate the speed of growth of the individual parts and integrate them to produce the form that we recognize as a plant. This book is a description of these natural chemicals: how they are synthesized and metabolized, how they act at both the organismal and molecular levels, how we measure them, a description of some of the roles they play in regulating plant growth and development, and the prospects for the genetic engineering of hormone levels or responses in crop plants. This is an updated revision of the third edition of the highly acclaimed text. Thirty-three chapters, including two totally new chapters plus four chapter updates, written by a group of fifty-five international experts, provide the latest information on Plant Hormones, particularly with reference to such new topics as signal transduction, brassinosteroids, responses to disease, and expansins. The book is not a conference proceedings but a selected collection of carefully integrated and illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of plant hormones and the experimental work that is the foundation of this information. The Revised 3rd Edition adds important information that has emerged since the original publication of the 3rd edition. This includes information on the receptors for auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and jasmonates, in addition to new chapters on strigolactones, the branching hormones, and florigen, the flowering hormone.

Auxins Cytokinins and Gibberellins Signaling in Plants

Aloni R (2001) Foliar and axial aspects of vascular differentiation - hypotheses and evidence. J Plant Growth Regul 20:22–34 Aloni R (2010) The induction of vascular tissues by auxin. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones: biosynthesis, ...

Auxins  Cytokinins and Gibberellins Signaling in Plants

Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Their signaling pathways are interconnected in a complex network, which provides plants with an enormous regulatory potential to rapidly adapt to their environment and to utilize their limited resources for growth and survival in a cost-efficient manner. Auxin is a hormone molecule whose activity levels are most important for its regulatory roles during plant cell, organ, and tissue development. Therefore, the precise regulation of auxin levels is an essential mechanism to fine-tune the activity of this powerful hormone during plant growth and development. Likewise, cytokinins exhibit a wide range of physiological functions, including regulation of shoot and root apical meristems, stimulation of branching, vascular development, chloroplast differentiation, stabilization of the structure and function of the photosynthetic machinery, delay of senescence, stomata opening, and elevation of the sink strength and nutritional signaling. Moreover, gibberellins also regulate many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion, and flower and fruit development. The broad implication of gibberellins in plant development is strictly associated with tight regulation of their metabolism by multiple environmental and endogenous factors, ranging from light and temperature to other hormones including feedback control. Understanding the significant roles of these phytohormones in plant biology, the current subject has attracted the attention of scientists from across the globe. This comprehensive volume “Auxins, Cytokinins and Gibberellins Signaling in Plants” highlights the various prospects involved in the current scenario. The book comprises the chapters from diverse areas dealing with biotechnology, molecular biology, proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, etc.

Plant Hormones

This is not a conference proceedings, but a selected collection ofnewly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of plant hormones, and the experimental work that is the foundation of this knowledge.

Plant Hormones

Plant hormones play a crucial role in controlling the way in which plants growand develop. Whilemetabolism providesthepowerand buildingblocks for plant life, it is the hormones that regulate the speed of growth of the individual parts and integrate these parts to produce the form that we recognize as a plant. In addition, theyplayacontrolling role inthe processes of reproduction. This book is a description ofthese natural chemicals: how they are synthesizedand metabolized; howthey work; whatwe knowoftheir molecular biology; how we measure them; and a description ofsome ofthe roles they play in regulating plant growth and development. Emphasis has also been placed on the new findings on plant hormones deriving from the expanding use ofmolecular biology as a tool to understand these fascinating regulatory molecules. Even at the present time, when the role of genes in regulating all aspects of growth and development is considered of prime importance, it is still clear that the path of development is nonetheless very much under hormonal control, either via changes in hormone levels in response to changes in gene transcription, or with the hormones themselves as regulators ofgene transcription. This is not a conference proceedings, but a selected collection ofnewly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of plant hormones, and the experimental work that is the foundation of this knowledge.

Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Plant Rootstock Scion Interactions

Auxins are produced from the vascular strands of the stock and scion, which bring about the vascular tissue differentiation, hence working as a growth regulating substance (Aloni, 1987; Mattsson et al., 2003). Plant hormones are ...

Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Plant Rootstock Scion Interactions


Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture

Circular vessels and the control of vascular differentiation in plants . Differentiation 21 , 22–6 . Savidge , R. A. ( 1983a ) . The role of plant hormones in higher plant cellular differentiation . I. A critique . Histochem .

Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture

The second edition of Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture makes available new information that has resulted from recent advances in the applications of plant tissue culture techniques to agriculture and industry. This comprehensive laboratory text takes the reader through a graded series of experimental protocols and also provides an introductory review of each topic. Topics include: a plant tissue culture laboratory, aseptic techniques, nutritional components of media, callus induction, organ formation, xylem cell differentiation, root cultures, cell suspensions, micropropagation, embryogenesis, isolation and fusion of protoplasts, haploid cultures, storage of plant genetic resources, secondary metabolite production, and quantification of procedures. This volume offers all of the basic experimental methods for the major research areas of plant tissue culture, and it will be invaluable to undergraduates and research investigators in the plant sciences.

Plant Hormones

For the last few years, the understanding of the plant hormones and their association with various plant processes, ... processes such as cell expansion and proliferation, vascular differentiation, timing senescence, and male fertility.

Plant Hormones

Plant hormones are among the most essential biochemicals found in plants. Since Charles and Francis Darwin identified auxin action, several plant hormones have been discovered. These small signaling molecules regulate not only developmental and growth activities, but also stress responses throughout the plant’s life cycle. This book discusses recent advances, new perspectives, and applications of plant hormones. It is a useful resource for academics, scientists, students, and industry professionals.

Plant Hormones and their Role in Plant Growth and Development

The polar flow of auxin controls the size and density of vascular elements along the plant axis. The general increase in the ... Role of auxin and sucrose in the differentiation of sieve and tracheary elements in plant tissue cultures.

Plant Hormones and their Role in Plant Growth and Development

Plant hormones playa crucial role in controlling the way in which plants grow and develop. While metabolism provides the power and building blocks for plant life it is the hormones that regulate the speed of growth of the individual parts and integrate these parts to produce the form that we recognize as a plant. In addition, they playa controlling role in the processes of reproduction. This book is a description of these natural chemicals: how they are synthesized and metabolized; how they work; how we measure them; and a description of some of the roles they play in regulating plant growth and development. This is not a conference proceedings but a selected collection of newly written, integrated, illustrated reviews describing our knowledge of plant hormones and the experimental work which is the foundation of this knowledge. The information in these pages is directed at advanced students and professionals in the plant sciences: botanists, biochemists, molecular biologists, or those in the horticultural, agricultural and forestry sciences. It is intended that the book should serve as a text and guide to the literature for graduate level courses in the plant hormones, or as a part of courses in plant or comparative development. Scientists in other disciplines who wish to know more about the plant hormones and their role in plants should also find this volume invaluable It is hoped that anyone with a reasonable scientific background can find valuable information in this book expounded in an understandable fashion.

Hormonal Regulation of Development II

The Functions of Hormones from the Level of the Cell to the Whole Plant T.K. Scott ... The question of whether procambium differentiation in relation to leaf primordia is the initial stage of vascular tissue differentiation, ...

Hormonal Regulation of Development II

This is the second of the set of three volumes in the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, that will cover the area of the hormonal regulation of plant growth and development. The overall plan for the set assumes that this area of plant physiology is sufficiently mature for a review of current knowl edge to be organized in terms of unifying principles and processes. Reviews in the past have generally treated each class of hormone individually, but this set of volumes is subdivided according to the properties common to all classes. Such an organization permits the examination of the hypothesis that differing classes of hormones, acting according to common principles, are determinants of processes and phases in plant development. Also in keeping with this theme, a plant hormone is defined as a compound with the properties held in common by the native members of the recognized classes of hormone. Current knowledge of the hormonal regulation of plant development is grouped so that the three volumes consider advancing levels of organizational complexity, viz: molecular and subcellular; cells, tissues, organs, and the plant as an organized whole; and the plant in relation to its environment.

Plant Development

Four papers forming a minisymposium on differentiation in tissue cultures and the role of hormones in vascular differentiation. Histochemical Journal 15, 411– 18, 427–66. Jacobs W. P. 1979. Plant hormones and plant development.

Plant Development

The study of plant development in recent years has often been concerned with the effects of the environment and the possible involvement of growth substances. The prevalent belief that plant growth substances are crucial to plant development has tended to obscure rather than to clarify the underlying cellular mechanisms of development. The aim in this book is to try to focus on what is currently known, and what needs to be known, in order to explain plant development in terms that allow further experimentation at the cellular and molecular levels. We need to know where and at what level in the cell or organ the critical processes controlling development occur. Then, we will be better able to under stand how development is controlled by the genes, whether directly by the continual production of new gene transeripts or more indirectly by the genes merely defining self-regulating systems that then function autonomously. This book is not a survey of the whole of plant development but is meant to concentrate on the possible component cellular and molecular processes involved. Consequently, a basic knowledge of plant structure is assumed. The facts of plant morphogenesis can be obtained from the books listed in the General Reading seetion at the end of Chapter 1. Although references are not cited specifically in the text, the key references for each section are denoted by superscript numbers and listed in the Notes section at the end of each chapter.

Cytodifferentiation in Plants

In short , there is no clear - cut evidence at this time that gibberellins play an inductive role in cytodifferentiation . Practically no critical research has been done on these hormones in the area of primary vascular differentiation ...

Cytodifferentiation in Plants


Phytohormones and Patterning

This book, which deals with the subject matter extensively, will provide a much needed comprehensive discussion on the entire scope of plant patterning, and the impact of phytohormones on patterning, which was otherwise missing. --

Phytohormones and Patterning

Although plant patterning and plant hormones are very active fields of endeavor, there are limited reviews focussing on specific topics such as root patterning and short apex differentiation. This book, which deals with the subject matter extensively, will provide a much needed comprehensive discussion on the entire scope of plant patterning, and the impact of phytohormones on patterning, which was otherwise missing. --

Annual Plant Reviews The Gibberellins

Role of hormones in controlling vascular differentiation and the mechanism of lateral root initiation. Planta 238, 819–830. Aloni, R., Schwalm, K., Langhans, M. and Ullrich, C.I. (2003). Gradual shifts in sites of free-auxin production ...

Annual Plant Reviews  The Gibberellins

First discovered as fungal metabolites, the gibberellins were recognised as plant hormones over 50 years ago. They regulate reproductive development in all vascular plants, while their role in flowering plants has broadened to include also the regulation of growth and other developmental processes. This timely book covers the substantial and impressive recent advances in our understanding of the gibberellins and their roles in plant development, including the biosynthesis, inactivation, transport, perception and signal transduction of these important hormones. An introductory chapter traces the history of gibberellin research, describing the many discoveries that form the basis for the recent progress. The exciting emerging evidence for the interaction of gibberellin signalling with that of the other hormones is critically evaluated. The occurrence of gibberellins in fungal, bacterial and lower plant species is also discussed, with emphasis on evolution. Manipulation of gibberellin metabolism and signal transduction through chemical or genetic intervention has been an important aspect of crop husbandry for many years. The reader is presented with important information on the advances in applying gibberellin research in agriculture and horticulture. Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 49: The Gibberellins is an important resource for plant geneticists and biochemists, as well as agricultural and horticultural research workers, advanced students of plant science and university lecturers in related disciplines. It is an essential addition to the shelves of university and research institute libraries and agricultural and horticultural institutions teaching and researching plant science.

Pattern Formation in Plant Tissues

Of great interest to all those engaged in attempting to understand the principles behind plant development.

Pattern Formation in Plant Tissues

Of great interest to all those engaged in attempting to understand the principles behind plant development.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Wood

However, when indole acetic acid (IAA) is added to the stem, vascular bundle differentiation occurs as in a plant with ... Auxin transported to lower tissues causes differentiation of vascular bundle cells, while the differentiated ...

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Wood

Progress in wood chemistry has been related mainly to chemical wood pulping and bleaching and chemical utilization of wood and wood extractives. Meth ods of wood analysis were developed by Schorger (proximate analysis in 1917) and Dore (summative analysis in 1919), and standard methods based on Schorger's method, e.g., TAPPI standards (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry), have been widely used for chemical analysis of woods in many countries. Thus it is generally known that wood is composed of about 50% cellulose, 20-35% of lignin, 15-25% of hemicelluloses, and variable amounts of extractives. Chemical characterization and efficient utilization of these wood components have been studied in laboratories of wood chemistry and technology in universities and government institutions. In the last decade, biochemistry and molecular biology of microorganisms, animals, and plants have greatly progressed. At the same time wood has been recognized as a unique renewable ecomaterial produced by trees using solar energy. In addition, many desirable properties of wood and wood components as biomaterial that affects physiology and psychology in humans have recently attracted attention.

Cellular Aspects of Wood Formation

Nature 426:255—260 Roberts LW, Gahan BP, Aloni R (1988) Vascular differentiation and plant growth regulators. Springer, Berlin Romano CP, Hein MB, Klee HJ (1991) Inactivation of auxin in tobacco transformed with the indoleacetic ...

Cellular Aspects of Wood Formation

With today’s ever growing economic and ecological problems, wood as a raw material takes on increasing significance as the most important renewable source of energy and as industrial feedstock for numerous products. Its chemical and anatomical structure and the excellent properties that result allow wood to be processed into the most diverse products; from logs to furniture and veneers, and from wood chippings to wooden composites and paper. The aim of this book is to review advances in research on the cellular aspects of cambial growth and wood formation in trees over recent decades. The book is divided into two major parts. The first part covers the basic process of wood biosynthesis, focusing on five major steps that are involved in this process: cell division, cell expansion, secondary cell wall formation, programmed cell death and heartwood formation. The second part of the book deals with the regulation of wood formation by endogenous and exogenous factors. On the endogenous level the emphasis is placed on two aspects: control of wood formation by phytohormones and by molecular mechanisms. Apart from endogenous factors, various exogenous effects (such as climate factors) are involved in wood formation. Due to modern microscopic as well as molecular techniques, the understanding of wood formation has progressed significantly over the last decade. Emphasizing the cellular aspects, this book first gives an overview of the basic process of wood formation, before it focuses on factors involved in the regulation of this process.

Plant Hormones

Nevertheless , with the exception of GNOM , the exact roles for all the proteins associated with auxin efflux remains unclear . ... Auxin determines sites of vascular differentiation and promotes vascular connectivity ( Aloni et al .

Plant Hormones

Volume 72 is wholly dedicated to the topic of plant hormones. Although Vitamins and Hormones is normally dedicated to mammalian hormone action, this volume is unique to plants and their actions through receptors. The genetic aspects and the receptorology are reminiscent of the mammlian systems. The well-known hormones are reviewed including cytokinins, abscicic acid, gibberellin and auxin. In addition there are reviews on nitric oxide, brassinosteroids, jasmonate, ethylene, and pheromones. Other topics included are genes that are regulated by abscicic acid and gibberellin, functional differentiation and transition of peroxisomes, plant antioxidants, gravitropic bending and the actions of plant hormones on glutathione transferase. *Includes color illustrations *Available on ScienceDirect *Longest running series published by Academic Press *Contributions by leading international authorities