Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America

Francesca Morgan finds the first stirrings of a sense of national patriotism--of "these United States--in the work of black and white clubwomen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America

After the Civil War, many Americans did not identify strongly with the concept of a united nation. Francesca Morgan finds the first stirrings of a sense of national patriotism--of "these United States--in the work of black and white clubwomen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Morgan demonstrates that hundreds of thousands of women in groups such as the Woman's Relief Corps, the National Association of Colored Women, the Universal Negro Improvement Association, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, and the Daughters of the American Revolution sought to produce patriotism on a massive scale in the absence of any national emergency. They created holidays like Confederate Memorial Day, placed American flags in classrooms, funded monuments and historic markers, and preserved old buildings and battlegrounds. Morgan argues that while clubwomen asserted women's importance in cultivating national identity and participating in public life, white groups and black groups did not have the same nation in mind and circumscribed their efforts within the racial boundaries of their time. Presenting a truly national history of these generally understudied groups, Morgan proves that before the government began to show signs of leadership in patriotic projects in the 1930s, women's organizations were the first articulators of American nationalism.

Mom

Francesca Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), 12. See also Christine Kimberly Erickson, “Conservative Women and Patriotic Maternalism: The Beginnings of a Gendered ...

Mom

In the early twentieth century, Americans often waxed lyrical about “Mother Love,” signaling a conception of motherhood as an all-encompassing identity, rooted in self-sacrifice and infused with social and political meaning. By the 1940s, the idealization of motherhood had waned, and the nation’s mothers found themselves blamed for a host of societal and psychological ills. In Mom, Rebecca Jo Plant traces this important shift by exploring the evolution of maternalist politics, changing perceptions of the mother-child bond, and the rise of new approaches to childbirth pain and suffering. Plant argues that the assault on sentimental motherhood came from numerous quarters. Male critics who railed against female moral authority, psychological experts who hoped to expand their influence, and women who strove to be more than wives and mothers—all for their own distinct reasons—sought to discredit the longstanding maternal ideal. By showing how motherhood ultimately came to be redefined as a more private and partial component of female identity, Plant illuminates a major reorientation in American civic, social, and familial life that still reverberates today.

The World of Jim Crow America A Daily Life Encyclopedia 2 volumes

Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. New York Times. 1896. “The Fourth in the South.” July 6, 1896. O'Leary, C. E. 1999. To Die For: The Paradox of American Patriotism.

The World of Jim Crow America  A Daily Life Encyclopedia  2 volumes

This two-volume set is a thematically-arranged encyclopedia covering the social, political, and material culture of America during the Jim Crow Era. • Gives readers hard to find but important details about the daily lives of African Americans during the Jim Crow era • Offers insights based on social history into the daily experiences of the average person, engaging students' curiosity rather than focusing on the events, dates, and names of "traditional history" • Presents information within a thematic organization that encourages a more in-depth study of specific aspects of daily life under Jim Crow • Includes related primary documents that enable students to view history more directly and reach their own conclusions about past events • Examines a wide range of topics such as work, family life, clothing and fashion, food and drink, housing and community, politics, social customs, and spirituality • Provides a general introduction to each volume, individual topic introductions, numerous images and illustrations, a timeline of events, and a bibliography identifying print and non-print resources

Jim Crow Capital

For works that discuss the dedication of the Douglass home, see Johnson, “Ye Gave them a Stone this is in the bibliography”; Brundage, Southern Past; Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America; and Ruffins; “Lifting as We Climb.

Jim Crow Capital

Local policy in the nation's capital has always influenced national politics. During Reconstruction, black Washingtonians were first to exercise their new franchise. But when congressmen abolished local governance in the 1870s, they set the precedent for southern disfranchisement. In the aftermath of this process, memories of voting and citizenship rights inspired a new generation of Washingtonians to restore local government in their city and lay the foundation for black equality across the nation. And women were at the forefront of this effort. Here Mary-Elizabeth B. Murphy tells the story of how African American women in D.C. transformed civil rights politics in their freedom struggles between 1920 and 1945. Even though no resident of the nation's capital could vote, black women seized on their conspicuous location to testify in Congress, lobby politicians, and stage protests to secure racial justice, both in Washington and across the nation. Women crafted a broad vision of citizenship rights that put economic justice, physical safety, and legal equality at the forefront of their political campaigns. Black women's civil rights tactics and victories in Washington, D.C., shaped the national postwar black freedom struggle in ways that still resonate today.

The American Bourgeoisie

Cecilia Elizabeth O'Leary,To Die For:TheParadox ofAmerican Patriotism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,1999); Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America; Teachout, “Forging Memory”; Brundage, Southern Past, 12–54; ...

The American Bourgeoisie

This volume engages a fundamental disciplinary question about this period in American history: how did the bourgeoisie consolidate their power and fashion themselves not simply as economic leaders but as cultural innovators and arbiters? It also explains how culture helped Americans form both a sense of shared identity and a sense of difference.

Inventing the Modern American Family

Even though historians have begun to explore conservative women's role in the development of American nationalism, ... Francesca Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005) .

Inventing the Modern American Family

Family is the foundation of society, and debates on family norms have always touched the very heart of America. This volume investigates the negotiations and transformations of family values and gender norms in the twentieth century as they relate to the overarching processes of social change of that period. By combining long-term approaches with innovative analysis,Inventing the “Modern American Family” transcends not only the classical dichotomies between women's studies and masculinity studies, but also contribute substantially to the history of gender and culture in the United States.

Maternalism Reconsidered

'“So Much for Men”: Conservative Women and National Defense in the 1920 and 1930s', American Studies 45(1), 85–102; F. Morgan. 2005. Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press; ...

Maternalism Reconsidered

Beginning in the late 19th century, competing ideas about motherhoodhad a profound impact on the development and implementation of socialwelfare policies. This volume reassesses maternalism by providingcritical reflections on prior usages of the concept, and by expandingits meaning to encompass geographical areas, political regimes andcultural concerns that scholars have rarely addressed. From Argentinaand Mexico City to the Soviet Ukraine, the United States and Canada,these case studies offer fresh theoretical and historical perspectiveswithin a transnational and comparative framework. As a whole, thevolume demonstrates how maternalist ideologies have been employed bystate actors, reformers and poor clients, with myriad political andsocial ramifications.

Transnational Cinematic and Popular Music Icons

Part of an everyday African-American aristocracy and family lineage noting the messy, interconnected nature of US race relations, like Dorothy Dandridge, Queen Latifah, and other non-white ... Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America.

Transnational Cinematic and Popular Music Icons

This book explores the films and popular music of Lena Horne, Dorothy Dandridge, and Queen Latifah,connecting each performer to female black-transnational histories and nonwhite female performers’ representational struggles.

The Development of Southern Public Libraries and the African American Quest for Library Access 1898 1963

Francesca Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2005), 81–82. 13. Stephanie J. Shaw, What a Woman Ought to Be and to Do: Black Professional Women Workers during the Jim ...

The Development of Southern Public Libraries and the African American Quest for Library Access  1898   1963

Using the Atlanta, Birmingham, and Nashville Public Libraries as case studies, The Development of Southern Public Libraries and the African American Quest for Library Access, 1898-1963 argues that public libraries played an integral role in Southern cities’ economic and cultural boosterism efforts during the New South and Progressive Eras. First, Southern public libraries helped institutionalize segregation during the early twentieth century by refusing to serve African Americans, or only to a limited degree. Yet, the Progressive Era’s emphasis on self-improvement and moral uplift influenced Southern public libraries to the extent that not all embraced total segregation. It even caused Southern public libraries to remain open to the idea of slowly expanding library service to African Americans. Later, libraries’ social mission and imperfect commitment to segregation made them prime targets for breaking down the barriers of segregation in the post- World War II era. In this study, Dallas Hanbury concludes that dealing with the complicated and unexpected outcomes of having practiced segregation constituted a difficult and lengthy process for Southern public libraries.

Selling Women s History

Packaging Feminism in Twentieth-Century American Popular Culture Emily Westkaemper ... Francesca Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005), 1–2, 63, 127, 139–142. 6.

Selling Women s History

Only in recent decades has the American academic profession taken women’s history seriously. But the very concept of women’s history has a much longer past, one that’s intimately entwined with the development of American advertising and consumer culture. Selling Women’s History reveals how, from the 1900s to the 1970s, popular culture helped teach Americans about the accomplishments of their foremothers, promoting an awareness of women’s wide-ranging capabilities. On one hand, Emily Westkaemper examines how this was a marketing ploy, as Madison Avenue co-opted women’s history to sell everything from Betsy Ross Red lipstick to Virginia Slims cigarettes. But she also shows how pioneering adwomen and female historians used consumer culture to publicize histories that were ignored elsewhere. Their feminist work challenged sexist assumptions about women’s subordinate roles. Assessing a dazzling array of media, including soap operas, advertisements, films, magazines, calendars, and greeting cards, Selling Women’s History offers a new perspective on how early- and mid-twentieth-century women saw themselves. Rather than presuming a drought of female agency between the first and second waves of American feminism, it reveals the subtle messages about women’s empowerment that flooded the marketplace.

Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington and Miles Davis

Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005; Brian Norman and Piper Kendrix Williams. Representing Segregation: Toward an Aesthetics of Living Jim Crow, and Other Forms of Racial ...

Louis Armstrong  Duke Ellington  and Miles Davis

This book examines Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Miles Davis as distinctively global symbols of threatening and nonthreatening black masculinity. It centers them in debates over U.S. cultural exceptionalism, noting how they have been part of the definition of jazz as a jingoistic and exclusively American form of popular culture.

The Oxford Handbook of American Women s and Gender History

Kim Nielsen, Un- American Womanhood: Antiradicalism, Antifeminism, and the First Red Scare (Columbus: Ohio State, 2001), 87–88. 25. Francesca Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina ...

The Oxford Handbook of American Women s and Gender History

From the first European encounters with Native American women to today's crisis of sexual assault, The Oxford Handbook of American Women's and Gender History boldly interprets the diverse history of women and how ideas about gender shaped their access to political and cultural power in North America. Over twenty-nine chapters, this handbook illustrates how women's and gender history can shape how we view the past, looking at how gender influenced people's lives as they participated in migration, colonialism, trade, warfare, artistic production, and community building. Theoretically cutting edge, each chapter is alive with colorful historical characters, from young Chicanas transforming urban culture, to free women of color forging abolitionist doctrines, Asian migrant women defending the legitimacy of their marriages, and transwomen fleeing incarceration. Together, their lives constitute the history of a continent. Leading scholars across multiple generations demonstrate the power of innovative research to excavate a history hidden in plain sight. Scrutinizing silences in the historical record, from the inattention to enslaved women's opinions to the suppression of Indian women's involvement in border diplomacy, the authors challenge the nature of historical evidence and remap what counts in our interpretation of the past. Together and separately, these essays offer readers a deep understanding of the variety and centrality of women's lives to all dimensions of the American past, even as they show that the boundaries of "women," "American," and "history" have shifted across the centuries.

Forgotten Veterans Invisible Memorials

How American Women Commemorated the Great War, 1917–1945 Allison S. Finkelstein. Michel, Sonya. Children's Interests/Mother's Rights: The Shaping of America's Child Care Policy. ... Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America.

Forgotten Veterans  Invisible Memorials

Carry on : the Women's Overseas Service League and veteranist commemorations -- Service inscribed in stone : compromise at the American Red Cross's Memorial Building to Women of the World War -- Commemoration through rehabilitation : the World War Reconstruction Aides Association -- "Let us take up the torch individually and collectively" : the American War Mothers and veteranist commemorations -- "A great and living monument" : the Gold Star Pilgrimages as veteranist memorials -- Conclusion: Beyond the Great War.

Schooling Jim Crow

Journal of American History 55, no. 4 (March 1969): 756–75. Merritt, Carole. The Herndons: An Atlanta Family. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002. Morgan, Francesca. Women and Patriotism inJim Crow America.

Schooling Jim Crow

In 1919 the NAACP organized a voting bloc powerful enough to compel the city of Atlanta to budget $1.5 million for the construction of schools for black students. This victory would have been remarkable in any era, but in the context of the Jim Crow South it was revolutionary. Schooling Jim Crow tells the story of this little-known campaign, which happened less than thirteen years after the Atlanta race riot of 1906 and just weeks before a wave of anti-black violence swept the nation in the summer after the end of World War I. Despite the constant threat of violence, Atlanta’s black voters were able to force the city to build five black grammar schools and Booker T. Washington High School, the city’s first publicly funded black high school. Schooling Jim Crow reveals how they did it and why it matters. In this pathbreaking book, Jay Driskell explores the changes in black political consciousness that made the NAACP’s grassroots campaign possible at a time when most black southerners could not vote, let alone demand schools. He reveals how black Atlantans transformed a reactionary politics of respectability into a militant force for change. Contributing to this militancy were understandings of class and gender transformed by decades of racially segregated urban development, the 1906 Atlanta race riot, Georgia’s disfranchisement campaign of 1908, and the upheavals of World War I. On this cultural foundation, black Atlantans built a new urban black politics that would become the model for the NAACP’s political strategy well into the twentieth century.

Mass Education and the Limits of State Building c 1870 1930

'Patriotic p. 13. J. W. Spring, W. A. 89. N. Silber (1997) The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South, ... 159–60;F. Morgan (2005) Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: University ofNorth Carolina Press), p.

Mass Education and the Limits of State Building  c 1870 1930

The first comparative study of the spread of mass education around the world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this unique new book uses a bottom-up focus and demonstrates, to an extent not appreciated hitherto, the gulf between the intentions of the government and the reality on the ground.

Battling Miss Bolsheviki

... 2003); Francesca Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (chapel Hill: university of north carolina Press, 2005); nielsen, Un-American Womanhood; June Melby Benowitz, Days ofDiscontent: American Women and ...

Battling Miss Bolsheviki

Why did the political authority of well-respected female reformers diminish after women won the vote? In Battling Miss Bolsheviki Kirsten Marie Delegard argues that they were undercut during the 1920s by women conservatives who spent the first decade of female suffrage linking these reformers to radical revolutions that were raging in other parts of the world. In the decades leading up to the Nineteenth Amendment, women activists had enjoyed great success as reformers, creating a political subculture with settlement houses and women's clubs as its cornerstones. Female volunteers piloted welfare programs as philanthropic ventures and used their organizations to pressure state, local, and national governments to assume responsibility for these programs. These female activists perceived their efforts as selfless missions necessary for the protection of their homes, families, and children. In seeking to fulfill their "maternal" responsibilities, progressive women fundamentally altered the scope of the American state, recasting the welfare of mothers and children as an issue for public policy. At the same time, they carved out a new niche for women in the public sphere, allowing female activists to become respected authorities on questions of social welfare. Yet in the aftermath of the suffrage amendment, the influence of women reformers plummeted and the new social order once envisioned by progressives appeared only more remote. Battling Miss Bolsheviki chronicles the ways women conservatives laid siege to this world of female reform, placing once-respected reformers beyond the pale of political respectability and forcing most women's clubs to jettison advocacy for social welfare measures. Overlooked by historians, these new activists turned the Daughters of the American Revolution and the American Legion Auxiliary into vehicles for conservative political activism. Inspired by their twin desires to fulfill their new duties as voting citizens and prevent North American Bolsheviks from duplicating the success their comrades had enjoyed in Russia, they created a new political subculture for women activists. In a compelling narrative, Delegard reveals how the antiradicalism movement reshaped the terrain of women's politics, analyzing its enduring legacy for all female activists for the rest of the twentieth century and beyond.

Of Thee I Sing

Icons: Constructing Patriotic Women from World War I to the Present (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, ... America's Suffragists (New York: Hill and Wang, 2005); Francesca Morgan, Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: ...

Of Thee I Sing

Our definition of American patriotism needs to be expanded beyond national celebrations. Identifying four competing forms of patriotism--celebratory, mythic, active, and critical--allows us to rediscover forgotten histories and reframe familiar ones like the Revolution and the Civil War, and helps us analyze our 21st century debates over patriotism.

Uncle Sam Wants You

On women's voluntarism and unpaid labor, see Jeanie Attie, Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War (Ithaca, ... Women and Patriotism in Jim Crow America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005). 8.

Uncle Sam Wants You

Based on a rich array of sources that capture the voices of both political leaders and ordinary Americans, Uncle Sam Wants You offers a vivid and provocative new interpretation of American political history, revealing how the tensions of mass mobilization during World War I led to a significant increase in power for the federal government. Christopher Capozzola shows how, when the war began, Americans at first mobilized society by stressing duty, obligation, and responsibility over rights and freedoms. But the heated temper of war quickly unleashed coercion on an unprecedented scale, making wartime America the scene of some of the nation's most serious political violence, including notorious episodes of outright mob violence. To solve this problem, Americans turned over increasing amounts of power to the federal government. In the end, whether they were some of the four million men drafted under the Selective Service Act or the tens of millions of home-front volunteers, Americans of the World War I era created a new American state, and new ways of being American citizens.