Andean women, like women throughout the world, have found their place at the head of invading peasant communities or strike lines. Such participation, however, does not necessarily transfer into institutionalized local politics.
Author: Susan C. Bourque
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
Category: Social Science
Pilar is a capable, energetic merchant in the small, Peruvian highland settlement of Chiuchin. Genovena, an unmarried day laborer in the same town, faces an impoverished old age without children to support her. Carmen is the wife of a prosperous farmer in the agricultural community of Mayobamba, eleven thousand feet above Chiuchin in the Andean sierra. Mariana, a madre soltera—single mother—without a husband or communal land of her own, also resides in Mayobamba. These lives form part of an interlocking network that the authors carefully examine in Women of the Andes. In doing so, they explore the riddle of women’s structural subordination by analyzing the social, political, and economic realities of life in Peru. They examine theoretical explanations of sexual hierarchies against the backdrop of life histories. The result is a study that pinpoints the mechanisms perpetuating sexual repression and traces the impact of social change and national policy on women’s lives.
marketing in Lima, my own research extended the analysis to the productive activity of Andean market women, whose work straddled home and market (Babb  1998, 2008a Spanish edition). While many of us during that time closely ...
Author: Florence E. Babb
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Social Science
In Women’s Place in the Andes Florence E. Babb draws on four decades of anthropological research to reexamine the complex interworkings of gender, race, and indigeneity in Peru and beyond. She deftly interweaves five new analytical chapters with six of her previously published works that exemplify currents in feminist anthropology and activism. Babb argues that decolonizing feminism and engaging more fully with interlocutors from the South will lead to a deeper understanding of the iconic Andean women who are subjects of both national pride and everyday scorn. This book’s novel approach goes on to set forth a collaborative methodology for rethinking gender and race in the Americas.
Women. and. plant. domestication. The beginning of agriculture in the Andes – as in the rest of the world - occurred when nomadic families, particularly the women, observed new plants germinating from seeds of wild plants.
Although rural women do participate in the cash economy as market sellers, Babb (1989) found that they acted as a critical opposition within their union as ... Women of the Andes: Patriarchy and social change in two Peruvian towns.
Author: Carolyn E. Sachs
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Based on theoretical insights from ecofeminism, women and development, and postmodernism, and the convincing empirical work of numerous scholars, this book is organized around five aspects of gender relationships with the environment: Part I-gender divisions of labor, Part 2-property rights, Part 3-knowledge and strategies for sustainability, Part 4-environmental and social movements, and Part 5- policy alternatives. Examining women's relationship with the environment using these five dimensions provides concrete, material examples of how women work with, control, know, and affect the environment and natural resources.
Gender Roles Both men and women are involved in Mesoamerican and Andean textile systems . Pre - Columbian weavers were predominantly women . As discussed above , under Spanish domination , treadle - loom weaving became men's work .
Author: Margot Blum Schevill
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Category: Social Science
"Chapters provide detailed information on manufacturing (spinning, weaving, dyeing, decorating); communicative significance (ethnicity, identity, tradition, rank, geographic origin); and marketing and commercialization among contemporary groups of indigenous descent"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.
as In other areas of the Andes , women are also documented as having a great deal of power , and the relationship between the sexes is described as egalitarian . An example would be William Carter and Mauricio Mamani's description of ...
Author: Inge Maria Harman
Category: Sex discrimination in employment
This paper describes the role of women in communal labor among Quechua-speaking peasant farmers in the Potosi region of highland Bolivia. Elements of equality, reciprocity, and hierarchy in the sexual division of labor in the area are discussed and their relationship to the work of women and men in collectivity is explored. The paper attempts to demonstrate that the relatively egalitarian relations that exist between women and men in the region under analysis have a firm basis in the equitable evaluation of male and female labor contributions to the social group. It reveals as well some of the channels through which elements of hierarchy in the larger social order can affect local conceptualizations of male and female.
Her Peru had long been male-dominated in a hoary Catholic way, with women not even given the vote until 1955. Andean villages were chauvinist in the extreme. (Although anthropologist Irene Silverblatt suggests that a more egalitarian ...
Author: Orin Starn
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
A narrative history of the unlikely Maoist rebellion that terrorized Peru even after the fall of global Communism. On May 17, 1980, on the eve of Peru’s presidential election, five masked men stormed a small town in the Andean heartland. They set election ballots ablaze and vanished into the night, but not before planting a red hammer-and-sickle banner in the town square. The lone man arrested the next morning later swore allegiance to a group called Shining Path. The tale of how this ferocious group of guerrilla insurgents launched a decade-long reign of terror, and how brave police investigators and journalists brought it to justice, may be the most compelling chapter in modern Latin American history, but the full story has never been told. Described by a U.S. State Department cable as “cold-blooded and bestial,” Shining Path orchestrated bombings, assassinations, and massacres across the cities, countryside, and jungles of Peru in a murderous campaign to seize power and impose a Communist government. At its helm was the professor-turned-revolutionary Abimael Guzmán, who launched his single-minded insurrection alongside two women: his charismatic young wife, Augusta La Torre, and the formidable Elena Iparraguirre, who married Guzmán soon after Augusta’s mysterious death. Their fanatical devotion to an outmoded and dogmatic ideology, and the military’s bloody response, led to the death of nearly 70,000 Peruvians. Orin Starn and Miguel La Serna’s narrative history of Shining Path is both panoramic and intimate, set against the socioeconomic upheavals of Peru’s rocky transition from military dictatorship to elected democracy. They take readers deep into the heart of the rebellion, and the lives and country it nearly destroyed. We hear the voices of the mountain villagers who organized a fierce rural resistance, and meet the irrepressible black activist María Elena Moyano and the Nobel Prize–winning novelist Mario Vargas Llosa, who each fought to end the bloodshed. Deftly written, The Shining Path is an exquisitely detailed account of a little-remembered war that must never be forgotten.
Women. in. the. Andes: Revolutionizing. Tradition. in. the. Highland. Cultures. of. Ecuador,. Peru,. and. Bolivia. From. the nineteenth century on, the term chola has served as an important, generally negative, cultural marker.
Author: Susan Kellogg
Publisher: OUP USA
Weaving the Past is the first comprehensive history of Latin America's indigenous women. While concentrating mainly on native women in Mesoamerica and the Andes, it also covers indigenous peoples in a variety of areas of South and Central America. Drawing on primary and secondary sources, it argues that change, not continuity, has been the norm for indigenous peoples whose resilience in the face of complex and long-term patterns of cultural change is due in no small part to the roles, actions, and agency of women.
Release on 1997-04-24 | by Rosaleen Howard-Malverde
If a married woman wears her mantle single , people might ask her : " Do you want to become a widow " ? One cannot overemphasise the importance of weavings in the Andes as containers . Mantles are used as carrying cloths , containing ...
Author: Rosaleen Howard-Malverde
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
A major concern in current anthropological thinking is that the method of recording or translating into writing a society's cultural expressions--dance, rituals, pottery, the social use of space, et al--cannot help but fundamentally alter the meaning of the living words and deeds of the culture in question. Consequently, recent researchers have developed more dialogic methods for collecting, interpreting, and presenting data. These new techniques have yielded much success for anthropologists working in Latin America, especially in their efforts to understand how economically, politically, and socially subordinated groups use culture and language to resist the dominant national culture and to assert a distinct historical identity. This collection addresses these issues of "texts" and textuality as it explores various Latin American languages and cultures.
But Boserup's propositions in the Andean areas studied hold only for the middle and rich strata of the peasantry : women's participation in the family agricultural labour force is indeed less among peasant households with sufficient ...
Author: Carmen Diana Deere
Publisher: International Labour Organisation
Category: Business & Economics
According to the prevailing interpretation of census data, the Andean region of South America has a male farming system. This monograph challenges that interpretation by showing that rural women participate actively in agriculture, both within peasant units of production and in the rural labour force. Census data suggest that the participation of rural women in agriculture has decreased in recent decades; but the findings of this monograph imply that it may in fact be increasing, both within smallholder production and in the seasonal agricultural wage labour force.
Marriage is strongly controlled for status equality and the few exceptions to this are usually men who marry into a slightly higher social class; women stay put, socially and geographically, while men move around. In Andean terms this ...
Author: Shirley Ardener
Category: Social Science
This book studies women's language use in bilingual or multi-lingual cultural situations. The authors - social anthropologists, language teachers, and interpreters cover a wide variety of geographical and linguistic situations, from the death of Gaelic in the Outer Hebrides, to the use of Spanish by Quechua and Aymara women in the Andes. Certain common themes emerge: dominant and sub-dominant languages, women's use of them; ambivalent attitudes towards women as translators, interpreters and writers in English as a second language; and the critical role of women in the survival (or death) of minority languages such as Gaelic and Breton.
These women provisioned Andean cities and in the process amassed property and used the colonial judicial system to defend their interests. For Burkett, this picture evoked the modern image of the ''chola'' who was ''aggressive ...
Author: Jane E. Mangan
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Located in the heart of the Andes, Potosí was arguably the most important urban center in the Western Hemisphere during the colonial era. It was internationally famous for its abundant silver mines and regionally infamous for its labor draft. Set in this context of opulence and oppression associated with the silver trade, Trading Roles emphasizes daily life in the city’s streets, markets, and taverns. As Jane E. Mangan shows, food and drink transactions emerged as the most common site of interaction for Potosinos of different ethnic and class backgrounds. Within two decades of Potosí’s founding in the 1540s, the majority of the city’s inhabitants no longer produced food or alcohol for themselves; they purchased these items. Mangan presents a vibrant social history of colonial Potosí through an investigation of everyday commerce during the city’s economic heyday, between the discovery of silver in 1545 and the waning of production in the late seventeenth century. Drawing on wills and dowries, judicial cases, town council records, and royal decrees, Mangan brings alive the bustle of trade in Potosí. She examines quotidian economic transactions in light of social custom, ethnicity, and gender, illuminating negotiations over vendor locations, kinship ties that sustained urban trade through the course of silver booms and busts, and credit practices that developed to mitigate the pressures of the market economy. Mangan argues that trade exchanges functioned as sites to negotiate identities within this colonial multiethnic society. Throughout the study, she demonstrates how women and indigenous peoples played essential roles in Potosí’s economy through the commercial transactions she describes so vividly.
The importance of food and cuisine to the maintenance of ethnic identity, the marking of social status within communities, and in particular the political and social power of women in Andean cultures is clearly documented from ...
Author: John E. Staller
Publisher: Springer Nature
There is widespread acknowledgement among anthropologists, archaeologists, ethnobotanists, as well as researchers in related disciplines that specific foods and cuisines are linked very strongly to the formation and maintenance of cultural identity and ethnicity. Strong associations of foodways with culture are particularly characteristic of South American Andean cultures. Food and drink convey complex social and cultural meanings that can provide insights into regional interactions, social complexity, cultural hybridization, and ethnogenesis. This edited volume presents novel and creative anthropological, archaeological, historical, and iconographic research on Andean food and culture from diverse temporal periods and spatial settings. The breadth and scope of the contributions provides original insights into a diversity of topics, such as the role of food in Andean political economies, the transformation of foodways and cuisines through time, and ancient iconographic representations of plants and animals that were used as food. Thus, this volume is distinguished from most of the published literature in that specific foods, cuisines, and culinary practices are the primary subject matter through which aspects of Andean culture are interpreted.
Other hats beside bowlers top off the typical clothing of indigenous women in the Andes. Hats appear in Peru, Ecuador, northwestern Argentina, northeastern Chile, and, especially, Bolivia, where they make a statement as an emblem of ...
Author: William H. Beezley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Delight in the cultural aspects of Latin America by observing the objects that give life to history Latin American Cultural Objects and Episodesprovides readers with an eclectic and fascinating exploration of Latin American history through the examination of physical objects. Distinguished author and Professor William H. Beezley takes readers on a journey that includes objects used music and visual media, such as movies, documentaries, and television. Forming an integral part of the history they represent, the objects described in this book tell the tale of the little known or neglected part of Latin American history. While most historical authors and researchers focus on the political and economic life of Latin America, this author uses the objects he highlights to explain and illuminate the daily lives of the Latin American peoples and the legacies that they share. Forming an essential part of a comprehensive understanding of Latin American history, the book includes discussions and explorations of: How objects have transformed and shaped the cultures of Latin America over the years Unusual and interesting objects serendipitously discovered by a variety of researchers and historians Ten chapters, each beginning with an object acting as a synecdoche or metonym that introduces a discussion of Latin American historical life The significance of the objects to particular religious practices, musical traditions, or schools of visual media, such as folk art, film or television Perfect for anyone interested in Latin American life beyond politics and economics, Latin American Cultural Objects and Episodes belongs on the bookshelves of everyone with a curiosity about culture in Latin America as it’s revealed through physical objects.
For stature reconstruction, an equation using the length of lower limb bones (femur and/or tibia) proposed by Genoves (1967) was applied, followed by the application of one of the sample-specific Andean female stature estimation ...
Author: Wieslaw Wieckowski
Publisher: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Category: Social Science
Excavations at the Castillo de Huarmey archaeological site brought to light the first intact burial of female high-elite members of the Wari culture. This book presents the results of bioarchaeological analyses performed to date, and focuses on reconstructing the funeral rite and social status of the deceased.
Engendering leadership: Indigenous women leaders in the Ecuadorian Andes. In Gender's place: Feminist anthropologies of Latin America, ed. Rosario Montoya, LessieJo Frazier, and Janise Hurtig, 177–196. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Author: Elizabeth Maier
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Category: Social Science
Women's Activism in Latin America and the Caribbean brings together a group of interdisciplinary scholars who analyze and document the diversity, vibrancy, and effectiveness of women's experiences and organizing in Latin America and the Caribbean during the past four decades. Most of the expressions of collective agency are analyzed in this book within the context of the neoliberal model of globalization that has seriously affected most Latin American and Caribbean women's lives in multiple ways. Contributors explore the emergence of the area's feminist movement, dictatorships of the 1970s, the Central American uprisings, the urban, grassroots organizing for better living conditions, and finally, the turn toward public policy and formal political involvement and the alternative globalization movement. Geared toward bridging cultural realities, this volume represents women's transformations, challenges, and hopes, while considering the analytical tools needed to dissect the realities, understand the alternatives, and promote gender democracy.
“ The Romance of Resistance : Tracing Transformations of Power through Bedouin Women . ” American Ethnologist 17 ( 1 ) ... 1990 Making Face , Making Soul : Creative and Critical Perspectives by Women of Colour . ... Women in the Andes .
Author: Sally Cole
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
Category: Social Science
This book is written by anthropologists who are currently engaged in research on gender. The editors argue for the development of an ethnography-based feminism that both pays heed to what women in specific circumstances identify as their concerns and recognizes the contradictions inherent in the goals of feminist anthropology. The essays consider a range of "awkward" issues, including feminism in international contexts, the invisibility of women's working lives, and the problems of voice and ethnographic representation. Referring to a variety of ethnographic contexts, and working from diverse perspectives, the contributors examine the multiple dilemmas and conflicts of gender and power.
organization along the lines of a common gender identification is elusive , achieving women's equality remains problematic . Some aspects of government programs ... BOURQUE , Susan C. and Kay B. WARREN 1981 Women of the Andes .
The Women and Culture Series is dedicated to books that illuminate the lives, roles, achievements, and status of women, ... Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930 Susan C. Bourque and Kay Barbara Warren Women of the Andes: ...
Author: Catherine Parsons Smith
Moving from the sphere of parlor music into the world of serious art music, she was the only American woman of her time to compose several full-length operas.
GENDER PARALLELISM In the colonial Andes, the rules and ceremonies of succession to the political administrative ... Prior to the implementation of Spanish-style patriarchy, Andean women would inherit property, and even religious ...
Author: Rachel Corr
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
Interwoven focuses on the lives of native Andean families in Pelileo, a town dominated by one of Quito's largest and longest-lasting textile mills. Rachel Corr reveals the strategies used by indigenous people to maintain their families and reconstitute their communities in the face of colonial disruptions.