In this new study, Rose offers a contrary proposal for the interpretation of the oracles in Haggai 2 and Zechariah 3 and 6.
Author: Wolter H. Rose
Publisher: A&C Black
It has often been argued that Zerubbabel, the Jewish governor of Yehud at the time of the rebuilding of the temple (late 6th century BCE), was viewed by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah as the new king in the line of David. In this new study, Rose offers a contrary proposal for the interpretation of the oracles in Haggai 2 and Zechariah 3 and 6. He traces their background in the pre-exilic prophets, pays special attention to often neglected details of semantics and metaphor, and concludes that neither Haggai nor Zechariah designated Zerubbabel as the new king in Jerusalem. Instead, the oracles in Zechariah 3 and 6 should be seen as fully messianic.
Wolter H. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period, JSOTSup 304 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 2000), 215. 10. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel, 209–15. 11. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel, 212–15. 12.
Author: Don Collett
Publisher: SBL Press
A broad, sweeping volume that breaches the walls separating biblical and theological disciplines Biblical scholars and theologians engage an important question: Who is Israel’s God for Christian readers of the Old Testament? For Christians, Scripture is the Old and New Testament bound together in a single legacy. Contributors approach the question from multiple disciplinary vantage points. Essays on both Testaments focus on figural exegesis, critical exegesis, and the value of diachronic understandings of the Old Testament’s compositional history for the sake of a richer synchronic reading. This collection is offered in celebration of the life and work of Christopher R. Seitz. His rich and wide-ranging scholarly efforts have provided scholars and students alike a treasure trove of resources related to this critical question.
that Zechariah may have envisioned a diarchy between Joshua and Zerubbabel , but that as hopes faded for royal renewal and a ... Rose investigates the presentation of Zerubbabel and Zemah in the books of Haggai and Zechariah 1–8 .
Author: Mark Boda
A review of the past century of research on the biblical books of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, with detailed analysis of the past two decades of key scholarly research and a classified bibliography of over 1200 studies. The bibliography is helpfully arranged according to topic, under more than 100 rubrics. There is a full listing of available resources for study. Altogether an extremely useful tool for all students and scholars of the Old Testament.
See also Petterson, “The Shape of the Davidic Hope Across the Book of the Twelve,” 235–39; Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel, 131–36. 99. Note the royal connotations of this language: 1 Chr 29:25; Ps 21:5; Jer 22:18; Dan 11:21; Baldwin, ...
Author: Matthew H. Patton
Publisher: Penn State Press
Jehoiachin reigned a mere three months before Nebuchadnezzar took him into exile. He was one more Judean king who did evil in the eyes of Yahweh, and his one recorded action as king was to surrender to the Babylonians. How significant can a king be whose reign ended when it had scarcely begun? Remarkably, unlike his uncles, Jehoahaz and Zedekiah, Jehoiachin did not disappear after his removal. Instead, he became the focus of ongoing prophetic discussion about the monarchy, his rehabilitation by Evil-Merodach was a turning point in the exile, and his offspring was eventually identified as the future of David’s line. The attention paid to Jehoiachin in the canon is the seed of Patton’s study. Why is there such interest in a king who was so insignificant politically and who—literarily speaking—is a rather flat character? What significance do particular biblical books attribute to him, and why? If we expand our purview to the Bible as a whole, another reason for investigating Jehoiachin emerges. The exile was one of the most significant events in the history of Israel. In its midst, Jehoiachin occupies an important position as both one of the last kings of Judah and one of the first exiles. Are there ways in which biblical writers capitalize on Jehoiachin’s unique position for their broader theological purposes? Going one step further, in Hope for a Tender Sprig, Patton pursues not only the diversity of the Bible but also its unity, suggesting that “salvation history” is useful for conceiving the unity of the Bible, especially when we are concerned with a historical figure such as Jehoiachin. If the various books of the Bible bear witness to one grand storyline, what is the significance of Jehoiachin within that story? In the light of the canon as a whole, can we synthesize the various perspectives on Jehoiachin and articulate his distinctive role in this grand narrative? These questions beg many others. What do we mean by “canon”? What grounds do we have for considering the canon as a unity, and why should we consider “salvation history” a valid paradigm for understanding it as a whole? What is the relationship of salvation history to “real” history, and is this even a valid question? What role will extrabiblical evidence (some of which concerns Jehoiachin directly) play in our investigation? Patton addresses these issues and arrives at a comprehensive biblical-theological reflection on Jehoiachin’s significance.
Concerning the future, Yahweh promises “to take you [ʾeqqāḥăkā],284 Zerubbabel. ... Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel, 210–11; Tollington, Tradition and Innovation, 139–41; Cf. Petersen, Haggai and Zechariah 1–8, 103. 290.
Author: Mignon R. Jacobs
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
In this commentary on Haggai and Malachi, Mignon Jacobs offers clear and insightful interpretation of the text while highlighting themes that are especially relevant to contemporary concerns, such as honoring or dishonoring God, the responsibilities of leaders, questioning God, and hearing the prophetic word in challenging times. Engaging with the latest scholarship, Jacobs provides a thorough introduction to both prophets in which she addresses questions of authorship, date, purpose, structure, and theology, followed by a new translation of the biblical text and a verse-by-verse commentary. With intertextual discussions about key aspects of the text and attention to competing perspectives, this commentary offers a rich new interpretation of Haggai and Malachi.
205 See the discussion and references in Wolter H. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000), 59– 68. 206 For an interpretation to opt for the two ...
Author: B. Hoon Woo
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
The doctrine of the pactum salutis (covenant of redemption) offers the idea of a covenant between the very persons of the Trinity for the redemption of humanity. The doctrine received most of its attention in seventeenth-century Reformed theology, and has been criticized and almost totally forgotten in dogmatics since the eighteenth century. Most recent Reformed dogmatics tend to ignore the doctrine or disparage it from biblical, trinitarian, christological, pneumatological, and soteriological perspectives-namely, the doctrine lacks scriptural basis; it is tritheistic; it leads to subordination of the Son; it omits the role of the Holy Spirit; and it applies a deterministic idea for the Christian life. The theologies of Witsius, Owen, Dickson, Goodwin, and Cocceius portray a very robust form of the doctrine. Witsius argues with the help of a peculiar methodology of cross-referencing and collation of related scriptural texts that the doctrine is firmly based on biblical exegesis that was passed on from the patristic era. The doctrine formulated by Owen endorses the doctrines of inseparable operations and terminus operationis so as to give deep insight into the Trinity. In Dickson's doctrine, the Son's voluntary consent and obedience to the will of the Father are highly emphasized. Likewise, Goodwin's depiction of the Holy Spirit secures the divinity of the Spirit as well as his indispensable role for the transaction and accomplishment of the pactum. The doctrine in the theology of Cocceius sheds much light on the vibrant dynamic of the Christian life in accordance with the ordo salutis. The doctrine of the pactum salutis of the five Reformed theologians clearly shows that the doctrine is both promised and promising for theology and the life of faith.
Zerubbabel is called a “servant” ( בעד ), he is “chosen” (רחב) and “taken” (חקל), and is to be made like a תוחם. ... Wolter H. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period (JSOTSup 304; ...
Author: Stephen J. Andrews
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament (JESOT) is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the academic and evangelical study of the Old Testament. The journal seeks to fill a need in academia by providing a venue for high-level scholarship on the Old Testament from an evangelical standpoint. The journal is not affiliated with any particular academic institution, and with an international editorial board, open access format, and multi-language submissions, JESOT cultivates and promotes Old Testament scholarship in the evangelical global community. The journal differs from many evangelical journals in that it seeks to publish current academic research in the areas of ancient Near Eastern backgrounds, Dead Sea Scrolls, Rabbinics, Linguistics, Septuagint, Research Methodology, Literary Analysis, Exegesis, Text Criticism, and Theology as they pertain only to the Old Testament. JESOT also includes up-to-date book reviews on various academic studies of the Old Testament.
88 The meaning of the term has now been extensively treated by Rose , Zemah and Zerubbabel , 91-106 . Rose questions the traditional rendering of nos as “ branch " or " sprout , " proposing instead “ ( a ) ' vegetation , greenery ...
Author: Géza G. Xeravits
Among the newly published texts of the Qumran Library there are a good number with eschatological content. Some of these texts relate the eschatological activity of certain figures who seem to play an important role in the events of the eschaton. This study explores these figures.The material of this study is divided into two main parts. The first is analytical, in which the related textual material is investigated, each passage in turn. The second, systematic section contains the evaluation and discussion of the data provided by the analyses of the first part.These analyses are especially relevant for scholars of both the Old and New Testaments and for all those interested in early Jewish thought at the turn of the era.
Rose (Zemah and Zerubbabel, 50–56) makes an interesting case for the existence of only one crown. If this was so, then the one crown that was placed on Joshua's head was to be kept in the temple as a remembrance.
Author: Lisbeth Fried
Publisher: Penn State Press
Lisbeth S. Fried’s insightful study investigates the impact of Achaemenid rule on the political power of local priesthoods during the 6th–4th centuries B.C.E. Scholars typically assume that, as long as tribute was sent to Susa, the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, subject peoples remained autonomous. Fried’s work challenges this assumption. She examines the inscriptions, coins, temple archives, and literary texts from Babylon, Egypt, Asia Minor, and Judah and concludes that there was no local autonomy. The only people with power in the Empire were Persians and their appointees. This was true for Judah as well. The High Priest had no real power; there was no theocracy. The wars that periodically engulfed the Levant in the fourth century temporarily pulled the ruling governors and satraps away from Judah, and during these times, the Judean priesthood may have capitalized on the brief absence of Persian officials to mint coins, but they achieved their longed-for independence only much later, under the Maccabees. Liz added this explanatory note in an e-mail to the Biblical Studies e-mail list on December 2, 2005: “There’s a confusion in reader’s minds about my methodology, which I’d like to set straight if I may. “The book is a rewrite of my dissertation. My dissertation was entitled The Rise to Power of the Judean Priesthood: The Impact of the Achaemenid Empire. I assumed at the outset that because the Achaemenid Empire was non-directive, and cared only that tribute would be sent regularly, the priesthood was able to fill the resulting power vacuum and achieve secular power. My goal was to chronicle the process. In addition I thought to look at Eisenstadt’s model which predicted the opposite result—that local elites, like priests, could not rise to power in an imperial system. Since there was no real data from Judah, I looked at temple-palace relations in Babylon, Egypt, and Asia Minor as well as Judah. “It was only during my research that I came to the conclusion that local priesthoods did not achieve secular power anywhere in the Achaemenid Empire and certainly not in Judah. In fact their power diminished during those 200 years. I also concluded, not that Eisenstadt was correct, but only that my data were insufficient to reject his model. However, my data were sufficient to reject the model of an Achaemenid Empire that was non-directive as well as the model of Persian authorization of local norms (Frei and Koch).”
W. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period (JSOTSup 34; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000) 50-56, 84-86. 11. J. Wellhausen, Die kleinen Propheten (Berlin: Reimer, 1893) 185; ...
Author: John J. Collins
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
A highly regarded expert on the Jewish apocalyptic tradition, John J. Collins has written extensively on the subject. Nineteen of his essays written over the last fifteen years, including previously unpublished contributions, are brought together for the first time in this volume. Its thematic essays organized in five sections, Apocalypse, Prophecy, and Pseudepigraphy complements and enriches Collins’s well-known book The Apocalyptic Imagination.
But the identification of the Zemah with Zerubbabel here is not secure. Although several have argued that Zerubbabal is the חמצ (Mowinckel, Beyse, Chary, Carroll, Petersen, Marti, Mitchell, Beuken), perhaps an equal number claim he is ...
Author: John Robert Barker
Publisher: Fortress Press
John Robert Barker uses rhetorical criticism of Haggai to tease out the probable attitudes and anxieties among the Yehudite community that saw rebuilding as both undesirable and unfeasible. While some in the community accepted the prophet‘s claim that YHWH wanted the temple built, others feared that adverse agricultural and economic conditions, as well as the lack of a royal builder, were clear signs that YHWH did not approve or authorize the effort. Haggai‘s counterarguments are combined with his vilification of opponents as unclean and non-Israelite.
It certainly would be possible for some sixth-century readers to see Zechariah's Zerubbabel/Branch as a royal figure ... 1993), 55; Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel, 140–41; Curtis, Up the Steep and Stony Road, 135–36; Anthony R. Petterson, ...
Author: David Janzen
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
David Janzen argues that the Book of Chronicles is a document with a political message as well as a theological one and moreover, that the book's politics explain its theology. The author of Chronicles was part of a 4th century B.C.E. group within the post-exilic Judean community that hoped to see the Davidides restored to power, and he or she composed this work to promote a restoration of this house to the position of a client monarchy within the Persian Empire. Once this is understood as the political motivation for the work's composition, the reasons behind the Chronicler's particular alterations to source material and emphasis of certain issues becomes clear. The doctrine of immediate retribution, the role of 'all Israel' at important junctures in Judah's past, the promotion of Levitical status and authority, the virtual joint reign of David and Solomon, and the decision to begin the narrative with Saul's death can all be explained as ways in which the Chronicler tries to assure the 4th century assembly that a change in local government to Davidic client rule would benefit them. It is not necessary to argue that Chronicles is either pro-Davidic or pro-Levitical; it is both, and the attention Chronicles pays to the Levites is done in the service of winning over a group within the temple personnel to the pro-Davidic cause, just as many of its other features were designed to appeal to other interest groups within the assembly.
Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel. 46. K. E. Pomykala, The Davidic Dynasty Tradition in Early Judaism: Its History and Significance for Messianism (SBLEJL; Atlanta: Scholars, 1995) 45-60. 47. Laato, Star Is Rising, 202. 48.
Author: Stanley E. Porter
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
When the ancients talked about "messiah", what did they picture? Did that term refer to a stately figure who would rule, to a militant who would rescue, or to a variety of roles held by many? While Christians have traditionally equated the word "messiah" with Jesus, the discussion is far more complex. This volume contributes significantly to that discussion. Ten expert scholars here address questions surrounding the concept of "messiah" and clarify what it means to call Jesus "messiah." The book comprises two main parts, first treating those writers who preceded or surrounded the New Testament (two essays on the Old Testament and two on extrabiblical literature) and then discussing the writers of the New Testament. Concluding the volume is a critical response by Craig Evans to both sections. This volume will be helpful to pastors and laypersons wanting to explore the nature and identity of the Messiah in the Old and New Testament in order to better understand Jesus as Messiah.
For some of the attempts to explain the Hebrew here, see Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel, 46–8; Åke Viberg, “An Elusive Crown: An Analysis of the Performance of a Prophetic Symbolic Act (Zech 6:9-15),” SEÅ 65 (2000): 161–9 (164–5).
Author: David Janzen
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This book examines community identity in the post-exilic temple community in Ezra-Nehemiah, and explores the possible influences that the Achaemenids, the ruling Persian dynasty, might have had on its construction. In the book, David Janzen reads Ezra-Nehemiah in dialogue with the Achaemenids' Old Persian inscriptions, as well as with other media the dynasty used, such as reliefs, seals, coins, architecture, and imperial parks. In addition, he discusses the cultural and religious background of Achaemenid thought, especially its intersections with Zoroastrian beliefs. Ezra-Nehemiah, Janzen argues, accepts Achaemenid claims for the necessity and beneficence of their hegemony. The result is that Ezra-Nehemiah, like the imperial ideology it mimics, claims that divine and royal wills are entirely aligned. Ezra-Nehemiah reflects the Achaemenid assertion that the peoples they have colonized are incapable of living in peace and happiness without the Persian rule that God established to benefit humanity, and that the dynasty rewards the peoples who do what they desire, since that reflects divine desire. The final chapter of the book argues that Ezra-Nehemiah was produced by an elite group within the Persian-period temple assembly, and shows that Ezra-Nehemiah's pro-Achaemenid worldview was not widely accepted within that community.
Against Rose (Zemah and Zerubbabel, 47–48), who goes on to argue that the crown does not signify coronation (pp. 50–59). 1122. This comment is from Joshua Greever. 1123. Against this, see Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel, 177–207. 1124.
Author: Thomas R. Schreiner
Publisher: Baker Books
Thomas Schreiner, a respected scholar and a trusted voice for many students and pastors, offers a substantial and accessibly written overview of the whole Bible. He traces the storyline of the scriptures from the standpoint of biblical theology, examining the overarching message that is conveyed throughout. Schreiner emphasizes three interrelated and unified themes that stand out in the biblical narrative: God as Lord, human beings as those who are made in God's image, and the land or place in which God's rule is exercised. The goal of God's kingdom is to see the king in his beauty and to be enraptured in his glory.
33:15–16, which explicitly joins this branch to David.26 However, as Rose demonstrates in his Zemah and Zerubbabel, these passages are not explicit or universally agreed upon in terms of their original meaning in the post-exilic period, ...
Author: Benjamin Reynolds
The essays in Reading the Gospel of John’s Christology as Jewish Messianism: Royal, Prophetic, and Divine Messiahs seek to interpret John’s Jesus as part of Second Temple Jewish messianic expectations.
Wolter H. Rose (Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period [JSOTSup 304; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000]) challenges it, arguing instead that Zechariah had in view a person named Zemah (ch.
Author: Mark J. Boda
Publisher: A&C Black
This book is an investigation of innovative uses of the Hebrew tradition in the early Persian period as represented by the prophetic corpora of Haggai and Zechariah 1-8.
royal connotation perceived in the language of Zerubbabel as a ' servant of the Lord , whom the Lord will take ” , has been ... and the language of the signet seal implies that Zerubbabel is 85 86 Wolter H. Rose , Zemah and Zerubbabel ...
Author: Laura Quick
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Dress, Adornment, and the Body in the Hebrew Bible is the first monograph to treat dress and adornment in biblical literature in the English language. It moves beyond a description of these aspects of ancient life to encompass notions of interpersonal relationships and personhood that underpin practices of dress and adornment. Laura Quick explores the ramifications of body adornment in the biblical world, informed by a methodologically plural approach incorporating material culture alongside philology, textual exegesis, comparative evidence, and sociological models. Drawing upon and synthesizing insights from material culture and texts from across the eastern Mediterranean, the volume reconstructs the social meanings attached to the dressed body in biblical texts. It shows how body adornment can deepen understanding of attitudes towards the self in the ancient world. In Quick's reconstruction of ancient performances of the self, the body serves as the observed centre in which complex ideologies of identity, gender, sexuality, ethnicity, and social status are articulated. The adornment of the body is thus an effective means of non-verbal communication, but one which at the same time is controlled by and dictated through normative social values. Exploring dress, adornment, and the body can therefore open up hitherto unexplored perspectives on these social values in the ancient world, an essential missing piece in understanding the social and cultural world which shaped the Hebrew Bible.
Zerubbabel Zerubbabel is the son of Shealthiel (Ezra 3.2, 8; 5.2; Neh. 12.1; Hag. ... of the meaning of the signet ring is found in Wolter H. Rose, Zemah and Zerubbabel: Messianic Expectations in the Early Postexilic Period (Sheffield.
Author: Zhodi Angami
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Tribal biblical interpretation is a developing area of study that is concerned with reading the Bible through the eyes of tribal people. While many studies of reading the Bible from the reader's social, cultural and historical location have been made in various parts of the world, no thorough study that offers a coherent and substantive methodology for tribal biblical interpretation has been made. This book is the first comprehensive work that offers a description of tribal biblical interpretation and shows its application by making a lucid reading of Matthew's infancy narrative from a tribal reader's perspective. Using reader-response criticism as his primary method, Zhodi Angami brings his tribal context of North East India into conversation with Matthew's account of the birth of Jesus. Since tribal people of North East India see themselves as living under colonial rule, a tribal reader sees Matthew's text as a narrative that actively resists and subverts imperial rule. Likewise, the tribal experience of living at the margins inspires a tribal reader to look at the narrative from the underside, from the perspective of those who are sidelined, ignored, belittled or forgotten. Tribal biblical interpretation presented here follows a process of conversation between tribal worldview and Matthew's narrative. Such a method animates the text for the tribal reader and makes the biblical narrative not only more intelligible to the tribal reader but allows the text to speak directly to the tribal context.